The term gastrointestinal (GI) tract refers to the
|A)||oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.|
|B)||pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.|
|C)||esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.|
|D)||stomach, small intestine and large intestine.|
The muscular contractions, which move material through the digestive tract, are called:
The nervous system or systems that can control peristalsis in the inferior esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine is (are) the
|A)||somatic motor nervous system.|
|B)||sympathetic nervous system.|
|C)||sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.|
|D)||autonomic and somatic motor nervous systems.|
Stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system will cause which one of the following effects in the inferior esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine?
|A)||nothing, because skeletal muscle is found in the walls of these areas|
|B)||increases peristalsis by stimulation of smooth muscle|
|C)||decreases peristalsis by inhibition of smooth muscle|
|D)||decreases peristalsis by stimulation of smooth muscle|
Contractions that mix material in the small intestine are called
The secretions that lubricate the food so it moves easily through the digestive tract and also protects the epithelium are called
Which one of the following is absorbed in the GI tract without being digested?
The epithelium of the mouth, oropharynx, esophagus and anal canal is
The stomach, small intestine and large intestine are lined by this epithelium.
The tunica muscularis in the superior esophagus is made up of ___________ muscle.
|D)||smooth and skeletal|
Contractions of the smooth muscles in the tunica muscularis in the GI tract causes ___________ and is stimulated by ____________ plexus.
|A)||local secretions, Meissner's or submucosal|
|B)||peristalsis, Auerbach's or myenteric|
|C)||peristalsis, Meissner's or submucosal|
|D)||local secretions, Auerbach's or myenteric|
The lamina propria and muscularis mucosa are found in the tunica
The outer tunic of the esophagus grades into the surrounding connective tissue and is called the tunica
The outer layer of the GI tract is composed of connective tissue and a simple squamous epithelium. This tunic is called the tunica ______________ and the simple squamous epithelium is called the ______________.
|A)||adventitia, visceral peritoneum|
|B)||serosa, visceral peritoneum|
|C)||serosa, parietal peritoneum|
|D)||adventitia, parietal peritoneum|
The enteric plexus in the tunica submucosa is called the_____________ plexus.
Stimulation of the parasympathetic neurons in the GI tract from Auerbach's or myenteric plexus will cause
|A)||inhibition of local secretions.|
|B)||inhibition of peristalsis.|
|C)||stimulation of local secretions.|
|D)||stimulation of peristalsis|
Branches of which autonomic nerve carry the parasympathetic motor neurons to the enteric plexi?
Which of the following is FALSE about the enteric nervous system?
|A)||It works through local control.|
|B)||It consists of enteric sensory and motor neurons.|
|C)||Enetric interneurons connect sensory and motor neurons together.|
|D)||The eneteric neurons are incapable of controlling digestive tract functions without the central nervous system (CNS).|
Which of the following cranial nerves carries sensation from the digestive tract to the CNS?
|D)||None of the above.|
Organs that lie outside the abdominal cavity such as the duodenum, pancreas, urinary bladder and rectum are
|A)||covered with parietal peritoneum.|
|B)||covered with visceral peritoneum.|
|D)||covered with serous membranes|
Which one of the connective tissue sheets listed below consists of two layers of serous membranes with a thin layer of connective tissue between them and attaches to the small intestine?
If you place a pin through the greater omentum, through how many layers of simple squamous epithelium would the pin pass?
Accumulation of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity is called
|B)||a hiatal hernia.|
|C)||an inguinal hernia.|
The coronary ligament attaches the
|A)||liver to the diaphragm.|
|B)||liver to the anterior abdominal wall.|
|C)||colon to the posterior body wall.|
|D)||lesser curvature of the stomach and proximal end of the duodenum to the liver and diaphragm.|
Which of the following structures forms a cavity or pocket between the layers of mesenteries?
Which of the following ligaments attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?
Which of the following structures would be considered retropertitoneal?
A person who is "tongue-tied" can often be treated by surgically cutting the
The fauces refer to the
|A)||opening into the oropharynx.|
|B)||space between the cheek and gums.|
|C)||cavity that contains the tongue and teeth.|
|D)||opening into the larynx.|
The oral cavity and oropharynx are lined by _______________ epithelium.
The lips are lined by _____________ epithelium.
|A)||moist stratified squamous|
|B)||dry stratified squamous|
The projection from the posterior edge of the soft palate elevates and helps close off the nasopharynx when swallowing. The projection is called the
|A)||buccal fat pad.|
Which one of the following is not located in the oral cavity or oropharynx?
Which one of the following is most easily absorbed in the oral cavity?
Out of a normal adult's 32 teeth, how many are molars?
Humans normally have 20 deciduous or "baby" teeth and adults 32 permanent teeth. The 12 additional teeth in humans represent
|A)||incisors and canines.|
|B)||canines and premolars.|
|C)||premolars and molars.|
The most common cause of tooth loss in adults is
Chewing or mastication reflex originates in the _______________ and the ability to initiate or stop chewing originates in the _______________.
|B)||medulla oblongata; cerebrum.|
|C)||spinal cord; medulla oblongata.|
|D)||medulla oblongata; midbrain.|
Which two regions of a tooth contain living cells?
|A)||dentin and enamel|
|B)||anatomical crown and cementum|
|C)||enamel and cementum|
|D)||dentin and cementum|
The center of the tooth that is filled with blood vessels and nerves is called the _____________ and the cavity within the root of the tooth is called the ________________.
|A)||clinical crown; root canal|
|B)||pulp cavity; root canal|
|C)||pulp cavity; dentin|
|D)||dentin; root canal|
In a given tooth, the dentin is located ______________ to the enamel.
Mumps is inflammation of the _______________ salivary gland caused by a virus.
The salivary gland that produces primarily mucus is the _____________ salivary gland.
Salivary glands structurally are
|A)||compound tubuloacinar or tubuloalveolar glands.|
|B)||compound alveolar or acinar glands.|
|C)||compound tubular glands.|
|D)||simple branched alveolar or acinar glands.|
The salivary gland which is mixed but produces more serous than mucous secretions and whose duct opens inferiorly in the floor of the oral cavity next to the frenulum of the tongue is the ______________ salivary gland.
If you suck on a plain piece of bread, it will begin to taste sweet after a few moments. Saliva contains the digestive enzyme ________________, which breaks down starch into ________________.
Saliva decreases gingivitis and caries because it contains immunoglobulin A and
Salivary secretion is stimulated by
|A)||the salivary nucleus only.|
|B)||the salivary nucleus and gastrin.|
|D)||the salivary nucleus and local reflexes in the tunica mucosa and submucosa.|
Which part(s) of the pharynx normally conduct food?
|B)||oropharynx, laryngopharynx and nasopharynx|
|D)||oropharynx and laryngopharynx|
The esophagus pierces through an opening in the diaphragm called the
The esophagus is different from the GI tract because the esophagus has
|A)||skeletal muscles at the superior end and smooth muscles at the inferior end.|
|B)||no tunica submucosa.|
|C)||villi and microvilli to increase surface area.|
|D)||no tunica mucosa.|
A major secretion of the esophagus is
Which one of the following does not occur during swallowing?
|A)||The larynx raises.|
|B)||The epiglottis moves anteriorly to close the glottis.|
|C)||The uvula and soft palate move inferiorly to block the oropharynx.|
|D)||The vestibular folds move medially.|
The pharyngeal phase of swallowing is ___________ , which is controlled by __________ muscle.
Sometimes when you are talking and eating you initiate the gagging reflex. The gagging or coughing reflex is stimulated when foreign material enters the larynx. Some of the bolus you are swallowing enters the larynx when you are talking because the
|A)||epiglottis is not closed over the glottis.|
|B)||soft palate moves inferiorly.|
|C)||pharyngeal constrictor muscles relax.|
|D)||esophageal sphincters relax.|
The esophageal phase of swallowing is caused by the
The region of the stomach around the opening from the esophagus is called the ___________ region.
The cardiac or lower gastroesophageal sphincter is composed of ____________ muscle and prevents chyme from moving into the _____________.
The stomach is unique to the GI tract because it contains
|A)||circular smooth muscle.|
|B)||longitudinal smooth muscle.|
|D)||oblique smooth muscle.|
The tunica submucosa and mucosa of the stomach are thrown into large folds called
Which one of the following cells in the gastric glands produce pepsinogen?
|B)||mucous neck cells|
|C)||chief or zymogenic cells|
|D)||parietal or oxyntic cells|
Surface area of the stomach is increased by
The major food digested by gastric secretions is
The hydrogen ions that form hydrochloric acid of the stomach come from
The low pH of the stomach activates enzymes that digest _____________ while inactivating enzymes that digest ______________.
|D)||nucleic acids; starch|
The parietal cells in the gastric glands of the pyloric region produce _____________ that bonds with Vitamin _______ to make it more readily absorbed in the ileum.
|A)||hydrochloric acid; B12|
|D)||intrinsic factor; B12|
The stomach produces acids, which denature protein, and pepsin that digests protein. The cell membranes of the epithelial cells lining the stomach contain protein. The protein in the epithelial cells are not denatured or digested because
|A)||the membranes contain a different type of protein that resists denaturation and digestion.|
|B)||mucus coats the epithelium.|
|C)||cell membranes are destroyed but mitotic activity replaces cells with new ones every few hours.|
|D)||hormones produced by the endocrine cells protect the cell membranes and neutralize the acid pH.|
The painful or burning sensation in the chest usually associated with acid reflux in the esophagus is called
|A)||a peptic ulcer.|
|D)||a duodenal ulcer.|
One of your family members has developed peptic ulcers and is consulting you for advice. You can tell your family member that there may be a chance of permanently curing this ulcer by
|A)||giving up smoking and alcohol.|
|B)||taking meditation classes to reduce stress.|
|C)||taking antibiotics that destroy Helicobacter pylori.|
|D)||taking Tagment or Zantac.|
Parasympathetic stimulation causes endocrine cells in the stomach to release the hormone
Histamine stimulates the ________________ cells to release ______________.
|A)||parietal; intrinsic factor|
|D)||mucous neck; mucus|
In the regulation of stomach secretions, distension of the stomach activates local reflexes and a parasympathetic reflex. This is called the _____________ phase.
Cells in duodenum monitor chyme coming from the stomach that has a pH of 1. You would expect the duodenal cells to
|A)||release gastric inhibitory polypeptide and cholecystokinin, which inhibits gastric secretions.|
|B)||initiate the enterogastric reflex, which increases gastric secretions.|
|C)||release secretin, which inhibits gastric secretions.|
|D)||release enterogastrone, which inhibits gastric secretions.|
Which one of the following hormones is released by both the stomach and small intestine?
|D)||gastric inhibitory polypeptide|
The stomach contractions, which move the chyme from near the periphery of the stomach toward the pyloric sphincter, are called
|A)||the pyloric pump.|
You take a deep breath; you raise your larynx and hyoid bone; your epiglottis closes off the larynx; the soft palate closes off the nasopharynx; the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract and the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes. What has just happened?
|A)||Low blood glucose levels caused these hunger pangs.|
|B)||Irritation in the GI tract caused the vomiting reflex.|
|C)||Bolus has entered the larynx and stimulated the gagging reflex.|
|D)||Bolus has entered the oropharynx, which initiated the swallowing reflex.|
Which one of the following parts of the GI tract has the following characteristics: simple columnar epithelium, muscularis mucosa, Meissner's plexus, two layers of smooth muscle in the tunica muscularis and Peyer's patches of lymph nodules?
The small intestine contains fingerlike projections called ____________, whose function is to ___________.
|A)||villi; secret mucus|
|B)||rugae; allow for expansion|
|C)||Crypts of Lieberkuhn; produce mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones|
|D)||villi; increase surface area|
Each day about 9 liters of water enter the gastrointestinal tract. By the time the contents leave the large intestine as feces, about ______% of water is reabsorbed.
Brunner's glands produce __________ and are found in the _____________.
In the tunica mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, a series of folds called the ____________ functions to __________________.
|A)||plicae circulares; increase surface area|
|B)||villi; increase surface area|
|C)||microvilli; allow the small intestine to expand|
|D)||rugae; allow the small intestine to expand|
The pancreas and liver release their secretions into the
Which cells in the small intestine may help protect the intestinal epithelium from bacteria?
You have a situation where the hepatopancreatic ampullar sphincter or sphincter of Oddi will not relax. You would expect
|A)||chyme not to be released into the stomach.|
|B)||the feces to contain a much higher percentage of fat than normal.|
|C)||the feces to contain a much higher percentage of starch and protein than normal.|
|D)||chyme not to be released into the large intestine.|
The lymphatic capillaries in the villi of the small intestine are called
|C)||Crypts of Lieberkuhn.|
The longest region of the small intestine is the
You were able to collect the chyme from the small intestine and isolate the various enzymes. Most of the enzymes would have been produced by the
In the small intestine, movement of chyme is regulated primarily by
|A)||secretin and cholecystokinin.|
|B)||the parasympathetic nervous system via the vagus nerve.|
|C)||local and mechanical stimulation.|
|D)||the enterogastric reflex caused by pressure of irritating substances in the colon.|
The hepatic sinusoids receive oxygenated and unoxygenated blood. The blood vessels that provide mixed blood to the sinusoids are the
|A)||hepatic artery and hepatic vein.|
|B)||hepatic vein and hepatic portal vein.|
|C)||hepatic portal artery and hepatic portal vein.|
|D)||hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein.|
You are tracing a drop of blood from the blood capillary network in the small intestine to the inferior vena cava. The pathway is
|A)||hepatic vein → sinusoid → central vein → hepatic portal vein → inferior vena cava.|
|B)||hepatic portal vein → sinusoid → inferior vena cava.|
|C)||hepatic portal vein → sinusoid → central vein → hepatic vein → inferior vena cava.|
|D)||hepatic portal vein → hepatic vein → sinusoid → central vein → inferior vena cava.|
Bacteria and other foreign material absorbed by the small intestine are destroyed by ___________ cells found lining the hepatic sinusoids.
Hepatocytes or hepatic cells produce bile, which is secreted into the
|A)||hepatic portal vein.|
Which one of the following is the correct pathway of bile from the hepatocytes to the gallbladder?
|A)||bile canaliculus → hepatic duct → common hepatic duct → common bile duct → gallbladder.|
|B)||bile canaliculus → hepatic duct → cystic duct → common hepatic duct → gallbladder.|
|C)||hepatic sinusoid → central vein → hepatic vein → gall bladder.|
|D)||bile canaliculus → hepatic duct → common hepatic duct → cystic duct → gallbladder.|
One of the major functions of bile salts is to
|A)||break down fat to fatty acids and glycerol.|
|B)||emulsify fat to fatty droplets.|
|C)||break down fat to cholesterol and lecithin.|
|D)||emulsify fats to bilirubin.|
An individual has the following symptoms: jaundice, pale in color, liver with a buildup of connective tissue. This individual most likely has
The liver is a major storehouse for all of the following except one. Which one of the following substance or substances are not stored in the liver.
|A)||copper and iron|
|C)||Vitamins A, B12, D, E and K.|
Bile secretion is stimulated by the hormone ______________ in response to ______________.
|A)||cholecystokinin; high pH of the chyme|
|B)||cholecystokinin; low pH of the chyme|
|C)||secretin; high pH of the chyme|
|D)||secretin; low pH of the chyme|
Which one of the following functions best describes the effects of the hormone cholecystokinin?
|A)||inhibits gastric secretions|
|B)||increases gastric secretions|
|C)||inhibits gastric secretions, stimulates pancreatic secretions (high in enzymes), stimulates contraction of the gall bladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi|
|D)||inhibits gastric secretions, stimulates pancreatic secretions (high in bicarbonate ions) and increases the secretions of bile, intestinal juice and mucus|
The liver combines a toxic by-product of amino acid metabolism, ammonia, with another waste product, carbon dioxide, to form the water-soluble _______________, which is excreted in the kidneys.
The gallbladder contracts in response to
|A)||vagal stimulation only.|
|B)||cholecystokinin and vagal stimulation.|
|C)||cholecystokinin and secretin.|
|D)||a low pH of chyme.|
Gall stones result from the precipitation of _____________ in the gallbladder.
|C)||uric acid salts|
The pancreatic islets produce
|B)||insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.|
The pancreatic juice, produced by acinar cells, is secreted into the
The major part of the aqueous component (other than water) of pancreatic juice is
|B)||trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and procarboxypeptidase.|
Trypsinogen when activated by ___________ will break down proteins in the ___________.
|A)||enterokinase; pancreatic ducts|
|B)||trypsin; small intestine|
|C)||secretin; pancreatic ducts|
|D)||enterokinase; small intestine|
Which one of the following enzymes is not part of the enzymatic component of the pancreatic juice?
The aqueous component of pancreatic juice is produced by the
In the production of the aqueous component of pancreatic juice, _________ ions are actively transported into the intercalated duct and sodium ions are exchanged for _________ ions.