|A)||are the only nutrients used by the body.|
|B)||can be synthesized by the body from other ingested nutrients.|
|C)||include most carbohydrates.|
|D)||must be ingested.|
|E)||all of these|
Each gram of carbohydrate or protein metabolized by the body releases about __________ kcal of energy, whereas each gram of fat metabolized by the body releases about __________ kcal.
Which of these carbohydrates is NOT digestible and provides fiber, or "roughage" in humans?
All of these carbohydrates come from plants EXCEPT:
|A)||include glycogen, cellulose, and starch.|
|B)||consist of many glucose molecules bound together in long chains.|
|C)||can be energy storage molecules.|
|E)||all of these|
The brain relies almost entirely on __________ for energy production.
For long-term storage, glucose is converted to __________ , while for short-term storage, glucose is converted to ___________ .
|B)||glycogen, ketone bodies|
|D)||pyruvic acid, fat|
|E)||fat, pyruvic acid|
All other monosaccharides absorbed into the blood are converted into __________ in the liver.
Skeletal muscle cells derive most of their energy from
Which of these carbohydrates is a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules?
Fish, safflower oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil are sources of
All of these foods contain cholesterol EXCEPT
|A)||is manufactured in the liver.|
|B)||is a component of the cell membrane.|
|C)||can be modified to form bile salts.|
|D)||can be modified to form steroid hormones.|
|E)||all of these|
Which of these statements concerning essential fatty acids is correct?
|A)||There are no essential fatty acids in the human diet.|
|B)||The most important essential fatty acid is cholesterol.|
|C)||Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are two fatty acids that must be ingested.|
|D)||The liver can synthesize some essential fatty acids.|
|E)||Essential fatty acids are only found in animal fat.|
There are __________ amino acids in proteins, and __________ are considered to be essential amino acids.
All of these are examples of proteins in the body EXCEPT
Which vitamin is necessary for blood clotting?
|A)||may function as hormones in the body.|
|B)||have a stable chemical structure that is unaffected by heat.|
|C)||can be manufactured in the body from provitamins.|
|D)||such as A, D, E, and K are water-soluble vitamins.|
|E)||all of these|
The two vitamins necessary for nucleic acid synthesis are folate and
|B)||vitamin B1 (thiamine).|
|C)||Vitamin B3 (niacin).|
|D)||Vitamin B12 (cobalamin).|
|E)||Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).|
Which mineral is involved in blood clotting, muscle activity, and nerve function? A deficiency of this mineral causes spontaneous nerve discharge and tetany.
Which of these is NOT a function of minerals in the body?
|A)||acting as coenzymes|
|B)||adding mechanical strength to bones and teeth|
|C)||acting as buffers|
|D)||acting as a regulator of osmotic pressure|
|E)||acting as a source of energy|
The energy-requiring process by which small molecules are joined to form larger molecules is
The energy currency of the cell is
Anaerobic respiration produces __________ ATPs and __________ as a waste product.
|A)||38, carbon dioxide|
|B)||38, lactic acid|
|D)||2, lactic acid|
Aerobic respiration produces _______ ATPs and ______ require oxygen.
|A)||2, does not|
|D)||38, does not|
Lactic acid can be converted to __________ in the liver.
Given these phases of aerobic respiration:
1. acetyl-coenzyme A formation
2. citric acid cycle
3. electron-transport chain
List the phases in the order they occur as a molecule of glucose is broken down.
Electron-carrier molecules that are used in the electron-transport chain to generate additional ATP are
|A)||NADH and FADH2.|
|B)||glucose and ketone bodies.|
|C)||pyruvic acid and lactic acid.|
|D)||glucose and pyruvic acid.|
|E)||acetyl-CoA and amino acids.|
Besides ATP, the end products of aerobic respiration are
|A)||lactic acid and pyruvic acid.|
|B)||lactic acid and citric acid.|
|C)||carbon dioxide and water.|
|D)||carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and water.|
|E)||carbon dioxide and citric acid.|
In the chemiosmotic model, __________ ions diffuse from the outer mitochondrial compartment to the inner mitochondrial compartment; as a result, ADP is converted to ATP.
At the end of aerobic respiration, all six carbon atoms from the glucose molecule are
|A)||found in carbonic acid molecules.|
|B)||found in carbon dioxide molecules.|
|C)||found in NADH molecules.|
|D)||still present in glucose.|
|E)||converted to form fructose.|
About 99% of the body's energy storage is in the form of
In the process of beta-oxidation, two carbon atoms are removed from the end of a(n) __________ to form __________ .
|A)||amino acid, fatty acids|
|B)||amino acid, acetyl-CoA|
|C)||acetyl-CoA, fatty acids|
|D)||fatty acid, amino acids|
|E)||fatty acid, acetyl-CoA|
The conversion of acetyl-CoA into acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid or acetone is called
To produce a nonessential amino acid, keto acids are converted to amino acids by the process of
The process by which amino acids and glycerol can be converted to glucose is called
During the absorptive state,
|A)||as glycogen is depleted, fats are used as an energy source.|
|B)||excess glucose is converted into glycogen or fats.|
|C)||fatty acids are converted to acetyl-CoA.|
|D)||acetyl-CoA is used to produce ketone bodies in the liver.|
|E)||proteins are metabolized or converted into glucose.|
Which of these forms of metabolic energy use is normally the smallest?
|C)||thermic effect of food|
One pound of body fat is equal to about
The gain or loss of heat as infrared energy between two objects that are not in physical contact with each other is called