Two of the primary hormones for bone growth and development are
|A)||bone growth hormone and epiphyseal growth hormone.|
|B)||human growth hormone and thyroid hormone.|
|C)||thyroid stimulating hormone and body growth hormone.|
|D)||pituitary hormone and bone growth hormone.|
Intramembranous ossification results in the formation of bones that belong to which class of bones?
|A)||skull and ribs|
|B)||ribs, clavicles, and spine|
|C)||flat bones of the clavicle and skull|
|D)||spine, skull, ribs, and scapulas|
Before the process of intramembranous ossification, which of the following type of tissue is found in the associated membranes of the skull and clavicles?
The process of intramembranous ossification begins when?
|A)||during embryonic development|
|C)||in the teenage years|
|D)||around the time of full development|
The type of cells that brings about intramembranous ossification are
The development of the fontanel is brought about by
|A)||the unossified fibrous membranes in the skull|
|D)||hypertrophy of osteocytes|
Woven bone is formed during which of the following situations?
|B)||fetal development and after fractures|
|C)||the first few months following birth|
|D)||periods of bone decalcification in old age|
Lamellar bone is bone that
|A)||arises out of cartilage|
|B)||arises out of collagen and elastic fibers|
|C)||replaces worn out and fractured bone|
|D)||is mature and is organized into thin sheets or layers|
In regard to bone cell development, which of the following sequences is correct?
|A)||osteoblasts → osteoclasts → osteocyte|
|B)||osteogenic cells → osteoclasts → osteocytes|
|C)||osteogenic → osteocyte → osteoclast|
|D)||osteogenic → osteoblasts → osteocyte|
When a fracture begins to heal, one type of bone cell moves into the fracture site and tears down the damaged bone tissue. Which of the following tears down bone?
If a 12 year old were to fracture their epiphyseal plate, the result of the damage could be that the bone
|A)||grows abnormally brittle|
|B)||may stop growing at the plate|
|C)||may grow much thicker at the site of the injury|
|D)||has greatly increased potential for a sarcoma|
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of "bone remodeling"?
|A)||bone that develops during fetal development and stays with us for life|
|B)||removal of old bone by osteoclasts and making of new bone by osteoblasts|
|C)||the construction of bone around blood vessels for a Haversian canal|
|D)||the laying out of new bone in a fracture site|
In the process of bone remodeling, old bone is removed by
|D)||remodeling osteoprogenitor cells|
Following a bone fracture a callus builds around the fracture site. Callus is a
|A)||mass of tissue.|
|B)||mass of blood vessels.|
|C)||mass of old broken bone pieces.|
|D)||collection of blood vessels and collagen at the fracture site.|
Which of the following fractures is a fracture of the distal radius and/or ulna?
Which of the following fractures is a fracture in a bone already weakened by disease?
A spiral fracture of a bone most often is the result of a bone
|A)||weakened by disease|
|B)||that has been crushed|
|C)||that has been twisted|
|D)||that has been compressed|
An injury that occurs to vertebrae when they are flattened is known as a
The term "calcium homeostasis" refers to which of the following?
|A)||balance of calcium between the bone and the cartilage|
|B)||creation of calcium by bones|
|C)||balance of calcium between the blood and the bones|
|D)||movement of calcium to and from cartilage and bone|
Which of the following glands plays a major role in calcium homeostasis?
|C)||ovaries and testes|
If blood calcium levels decrease, which of the following hormones is released to take calcium out of bones and put it into the blood?
|B)||calcium hydroxyl hormone|
|D)||human growth hormone|
If blood calcium levels increase, which of the following hormones is released to take calcium from the blood and place in into the bones?
|D)||human growth hormone|
Calcitrol is a(n)
|A)||bone growth hormone|
|B)||form of calcium stored in bones|
|C)||activated form of vitamin D.|
|D)||excretion of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.|
The general function of calcitriol in relation to bone cell activity is that it
|A)||inhibits the action of osteoblasts.|
|B)||increases osteoclast activity.|
|D)||stops all bone growth activity.|
In old age, most of the yellow bone marrow is replaced by
|A)||gelatinous bone marrow|
|B)||solid compact bone|
Osteoporosis most often occurs in
|A)||older men of all races|
|B)||older white women|
|C)||older black women|
|D)||teenage males and females|
Most of the calcium taken in with the diet that is not absorbed is
|A)||stored in the liver.|
|B)||excreted by the kidneys in the urine|
|C)||excreted in the feces|
|D)||recycled in the body|
Which of the following represents a normal level of blood calcium in an adult?
Insufficient vitamin D in a diet may result in a condition known as
Insufficient vitamin C in a diet may result in a condition known as
A lack of vitamin D in the diet that may occur in adults with a digestive disorder is known as
Which of the following diseases of bones is a loss of bone mass and density?
|B)||osteitis deformans (Paget's)|
Which of the following diseases is a bacterial infection of bone?
|B)||osteitis deformans (Paget's)|
Which of the following bone disorders is a deadly bone tumor?
The most common bone disease is osteoporosis. The most common consequence of this disease is
|C)||luxations and subluxations|
|D)||fusion of bones|
A developmental disorder in which the pituitary produces excess growth hormone and the patient grows abnormally large is known as
Which of the following is a genetic disorder in which very brittle bones are produced that result in many fractures?
Which of the following disorders is the result of low amounts of growth hormone production that results in a very small person?
Bone tissue sometimes forms in the lungs, brain, eyes, muscles, tendon, and arteries. This type of extra bone growth is termed
Which of the following diseases of bones results in a thickening of the bones of the skull and pelvis, most often occurring in males?
|D)||Paget's disease of bone|
Which of the following combinations of treatments would be the most appropriate for treatment of osteoporosis?
|A)||running, hiking, and drinking 3 liters of water per day|
|B)||walking, adding calcium to the diet and, perhaps, taking estrogen-replacement therapy|
|C)||walking, taking phosphorus tablets, and drinking 3 liters or more of water a day|
|D)||running, taking mineral tablets each day, drinking more water, and taking testosterone therapy.|