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Multiple Choice
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Milgram's obedience study was purportedly an experiment on __________.
A)shock and memory
B)learning and shock.
C)mistakes and learning
D)memory and learning

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ethical principles in the Belmont Report?
B)respect for persons

To be assured that research procedures have minimized risk to participants, a ___________ must be done before research can be approved.
A)plus-minus analysis
B)cost-reward analysis
C)risk-benefit analysis
D)pro-con analysis

Potential risks to the participants in a study include such factors as __________.
A)physical harm and psychological harm.
B)psychological harm and loss of confidentiality.
C)loss of confidentiality and loss of anonymity.
D)loss of confidentiality, psychological harm and physical harm.

In some cases, the risks entailed with loss of confidentiality are so great that researchers may wish to apply for a Certificate of Confidentiality from the __________.
A)U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
B)American Medical Association
C)American Psychological Association
D)Institutional Review Board

Informed consent forms should be written in __________.
A)the first person.
B)specific technical terminology
C)a sixth to eighth grade level
D)legalistic terms.

Any procedure that limits an individual's freedom to consent to participate in a study can be __________.
A)a violation of confidentiality.
B)potentially coercive.
C)approved by the IRB.

Which of the following is TRUE about the informed consent procedure?
A)It may bias the sample and limit generalizability of the results.
B)It may encourage participants to ask for payment.
C)It may set the stage for realistic behavior in research.
D)It may decrease perceptions of control.

Which of the following is NOT a reason for the decrease in the type of elaborate deception used in the Milgram study?
A)Most researchers are more interested in emotions rather than cognitive variables.
B)The general level of awareness of ethical issues related to the use of deception.
C)Ethics committees are likely to approve deception for important research in which there are no alternative procedures.
D)both a and c

If researchers withhold information, use deception, and/or there is a potential for harmful effects on participations, a(n) _______ must be done.

Three alternative procedures to deception in research are __________.
A)honest, role-playing and simulation studies.
B)situation, role-playing and reality studies.
C)honest, situation and reality studies.
D)simulation, situation and reality studies.

The Stanford Prison Experiment is an example of a __________ study.

According to the justice principle defined in the Belmont Report, any decision to include or exclude certain people from a research study must be __________.
A)approved by the American Psychological Association Ethics Committee.
B)justified on scientific grounds.
C)equal and fair to all participating.
D)approved by the Judicial Committee fhe Belmont Agency.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A)The actual rules and regulations for the protection of human research participants were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
B)Every institution that receives federal funds must have an Institutional Review Board.
C)Research in which there is no risk is exempt from an IRB review.
D)All the above.

The APA Ethics Code has __________ principles and __________ ethical standards.
A)five; 10
B)10; three
C)three; five
D)four; 13

All institutions in which animal research is carried out must have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee that is __________.
A)charged with reviewing animal research procedures.
B)composed of one scientist, one veterinarian, and a community member.
C)charged with ensuring that all regulations are adhered to.
D)All the above.

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