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Psychology: An Introduction, 8/e

Benjamin B. Lahey, University of Chicago

ISBN: 0072563141
Copyright year: 2004

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: What is Psychology?
- Psych and Science = Psychology
  • Definition of Psychology
  • Goals of Psychology
    - The Many Viewpoints in Psychology and Their Origins
  • Nature of Conscious Experience
  • Functions of the Conscious Mind
  • Psychometrics: Alfred Binet
  • Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
  • The Nature of the “Unconscious Mind”
    - Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology
  • Neuroscience Perspective
  • Sociocultural Perspective
  • Evolutionary Perspective—NEW!
  • Positive Psychology—NEW!
    -Specialty Areas of Modern Psychology
  • Basic Areas of Modern Psychology
  • Applied Areas of Modern Psychology
  • Relationship Between Psychology and Psychiatry
    What We Know About Human Behavior: Some Starting Places
    Visual Review of Historical Time Line

    Chapter 2: Research Methods in Psychology
    - Basic Concepts of Research
  • Empirical Evidence and Operational Definitions—NEW!
  • Theories and Hypotheses
  • Representativeness of Samples
  • Importance of Replication in Research
    - Research Methods
  • Descriptive Studies
  • Formal Experiments
    - Ethical Principles of Research
  • Ethics of Research with Human Participants
  • Ethics of Research with Nonhuman Animals
    Application of Psychology: Design Your Own Formal Experiment

    Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior Prologue
    - Nervous System: Biological Control Center
  • Neurons: The Units of the Nervous System
    - Divisions of the Nervous System
  • Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
    - Structures and Functions of the Brain
  • Images of the Brain at Work
  • Hindbrain and Midbrain: Housekeeping Chores and Reflexes
  • Forebrain: Cognition, Motivation, Emotion, and Action
  • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
  • Functions of the Hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex
  • The Brain Is a Developing System—NEW!
  • The Brain is an Interacting System
    - Endocrine System: Chemical Messengers of the Body
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Islets of Langerhans
  • Gonads
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Parathyroid Glands
  • Pineal Gland
    - Genetic Influences on Behavior
  • What is Inherited?
  • Biological Mechanisms of Inheritance: Genetic Codes
  • Research on Inheritance in Humans
    Application of Psychology: Madness and the Brain


    Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
    - Sensation: Receiving Messages About the World
  • Stimuli: What Messages Can Be Received?
  • Transduction: Translating Messages for the Brain
  • Sensory Limits: How Strong Must Messages Be?
    - Vision: Your Human Camera
  • Light: What is it?
  • The Eye: How Does It Work?
  • Dark and Light Adaptation
  • Color Vision
    - Hearing: Sensing Sound Waves
  • Sound: What is it?
  • The Ear: How Does It Work?
    - Body Senses: Messages From Myself
  • Orientation and Movement
  • Skin Senses
  • Pain
    - Chemical Senses: The Flavors and Aromas of Life
  • Taste
  • Smell
  • Pheromone Detection
    - Perception: Interpreting Sensory Messages
  • Visual Perception
  • Individual and Cultural Influences on Perception
    Application of Psychology: Visual Perception, Illusion, and Art
    Visual Review of the Sense Organs

    Chapter 5: States of Consciousness
    - Wide Awake: Normal Waking Consciousness—REVISED!
  • Daydreams
  • Divided Consciousness: Being Two Places (Mentally) at the Same Time
  • The Concept of the Unconscious Mind
    - Sleep and Dreams: Conscious While Asleep—REVISED!
  • Stages of Sleep
  • REM Sleep and Dreams
  • Non-REM Sleep and Dreams
  • Circadian Rhythms
  • Content of Dreams
  • Meaning of Dreams
  • Reasons for Sleep and Dreams
  • Nightmares and Other Sleep Phenomena
  • Sleep Disorders
    - Altered States of Consciousness—REVISED!
  • Meditation
  • Hypnosis
  • Depersonalization
    - Drugs and Altered Consciousness
  • Drug Use: Some Basic Considerations
  • Psychotropic Drugs
    Application of Psychology: The Legal Consciousness-Altering Drugs


    Chapter 6: Basic Principles of Learning
    Definition of Learning
    - Classical Conditioning: Learning By Association
  • Association: The Key Element in Classical Conditioning
  • Terminology of Classical Conditioning
  • Definition of Classical Conditioning
  • Importance of Classical Conditioning
    - Operant Conditioning: Learning From the Consequences of Your Behavior
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Punishment
  • Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
  • Stimulus Discrimination and Generalization
    - Extinction: Learning When to Quit
  • Removing the Source of Learning
  • Spontaneous Recovery and Disinhibition
    - Theoretical Interpretations of Learning
  • Cognition or Connection?
  • Modeling: Learning by Watching Others
  • Biological Factors in Learning
    Application of Psychology: Learning to Be Superstitious

    Chapter 7: Memory
    - Three Stages of Memory: An Information-Processing View
  • Sensory Register
  • Short-Term Memory
  • Long-Term Memory
  • Levels of Processing: An Alternative to the Stage Model
    - Forgetting and Why It Occurs
  • Decay Theory
  • Interference Theory
  • Reconstruction (Schema) Theory
  • Motivated Forgetting
    - Biological Basis of Memory—REVISED!
  • Synaptic Theories of Memory: Search for the Engram
  • Stages of Memory and the Brain
  • Amnesia: Disorders of Memory
    Application of Psychology: Eyewitness Testimony and Memory

    Chapter 8: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence
    Definition of Cognition
    - Concepts: The Basic Units of Thinking—REVISED!
  • Simple and Complex Concepts
  • Natural Concepts
    - Thinking and Problem Solving: Using Information to Reach Goals
  • Cognitive Operations in Problem Solving
  • Understanding and Organizing the Elements of the Problem
  • Heuristic Thinking
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Creative Problem Solving: Convergent and Divergent Thinking
    - Language: Symbolic Communication
  • Semantics: The Meaning of What Is Said
  • Generative Property of Language: Elements and Rules
  • Language and Thought: The Whorfian Hypothesis
  • Animal Languages: Can We Talk to the Animals?
    - Intelligence: The Sum Total of Cognition
  • Differing Views of Intelligence
  • Measures of Intelligence: The IQ Test
  • Tacit Intelligence
  • Individual Differences in Intelligence: Contributing Factors
  • The Importance of Intelligence Scores in Modern Society
  • Are People Becoming More Intelligent?
  • Race-Ethnic Differences in Intelligence and Achievement: The Narrowing Gap
  • “The Bell Curve”: Policy Implications of Differences in Intelligence
  • Extremes in Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness
    Application of Psychology: Improving Critical Thinking


    Chapter 9: Developmental Psychology
    - Basic Processes of Development
  • Nature or Nurture?
  • Maturation
  • Early Experience and Critical Periods
  • Variations in Development: Getting There at Different Times
    - Stage Theories of Development
  • Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Stage Theories of Moral Development
  • Erikson’s Stage Theory of Personality Development
    - The Concept of Development Across the Life Span
    - Development in Infancy and Childhood
  • Neonatal Period: The Newborn
  • Infancy: 2 Weeks to 2 Years
  • Early Childhood: 2 to 7 Years
  • Middle Childhood: 7 to 11 Years
    - Adolescent Development
  • Physical Development
  • Cognitive Development (Formal Operational Stage)
  • Emotional and Social Development
    - Adulthood: Young Adulthood Through Older Adulthood
  • Physical Development
  • Cognitive Development
  • Emotional and Social Development
  • Death and Dying: The Final “Stage”
    Application of Psychology: Parenting


    Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion
    - Definitions of Motivation and Emotion
    - Primary Motives: Biological Needs
  • Homeostasis: Biological Thermostats
  • Hunger: The Regulation of Food Intake
  • Thirst: The Regulation of Water Intake
    - Psychological Motives
  • Stimulus Motivation: Seeking Novel Stimulation
  • Affiliation Motivation
  • Achievement Motivation
  • Solomon’s Opponent-Process Theory of Acquired Motives
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives
    - Emotions
  • Three Theories of Emotion
  • The Physiology of Emotion and Lie Detectors
  • Role of Learning and Culture in Emotions
  • The Pursuit of Happiness—NEW!
    - Aggression: Emotional and Motivational Aspects
  • Freud’s Instinct Theory: The Release of Aggressive Energy
  • Frustration-Aggression Theory
  • Social Learning Theory
    Application of Psychology: Should You Try to Lose Weight? If So, How?

    Chapter 11: Gender and Sexuality
    - Gender and Sexual Orientation
  • Gender Identity and Gender Roles
  • Gender Similarities and Gender Differences
  • Development of Gender Identity and Roles
  • Sexual Orientation
    - Biological and Psychological Aspects of Sexuality
  • Sexual Anatomy and Functioning
  • Sexual Motivation
  • Hormones and Sexual Behavior
  • Patterns of Sexual Behavior
    - Atypical and Abnormal Sexual Behavior
  • Transvestism and Transsexualism
  • Fetishism
  • Sexual Sadism and Masochism
  • Forced Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Harassment
    - Sexual Dysfunction Sexual Health
  • Dysfunctions of Sexual Desire
  • Dysfunctions of Sexual Arousal
  • Orgasm Dysfunctions
  • Health Problems Related to Sexual Anatomy
    Application of Psychology: Date Rape

    Chapter 12: Personality Theories and Assessment
    - Definition of Personality
    - Trait Theory: Describing the Consistencies of Personality
  • Allport’s Trait Theory
  • Five-Factor Trait Theory
  • Validation of Personality Trait Theory
    - Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud
  • Freud’s Mind: Three Levels of Consciousness
  • Freud’s Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
  • Displacement and Identification: Becoming a Member of Society
  • Growing Up: The Stages of Psychosexual Development
  • Theories Derived from Psychoanalysis
    - Social Learning Theory: Albert Bandura
  • Role of Learning in Personality
  • Role of Cognition in Personality
  • Situationism and Interactionism
    - Humanistic Theory: Maslow and Rogers
  • Inner-Directedness and Subjectivity
  • The Self-Concept
  • Self-Actualization
  • Humanism Compared with Classic Psychoanalysis and Social Learning Theory
  • Contemporary Merging of the Major Theories of Personality
    - Personality Assessment: Taking a Measure of the Person
  • Interviews and Observational Methods
  • Projective Personality Tests
  • Objective Personality Tests
  • Evaluation of Personality Tests
    Application of Psychology: Situational Influences on Personality in Everyday Life


    Chapter 13: Stress and Health
    - Stress: Challenges to Coping
  • Sources of Stress
  • Stress Reactions
    - Factors that Influence Reactions to Stress
  • Prior Experience with the Stress
  • Developmental Factors
  • Predictability and Control
  • Social Support
  • Person Variables in Reactions to Stress: Cognition and Personality
  • Person Variables in Reactions to Stress: Gender and Ethnicity—REVISED!
    - Coping with Stress
  • Effective Coping
  • Ineffective Coping
    - Changing Health-Related Behavior Patterns
  • Learning to Relax
  • Eating Right, Exercising, and Doing Just What the Doctor Ordered
  • Safety Management—NEW!
    - Summing Up: How Beneficial Could Health Psychology Be?
  • Psychology and the Cost of Health Care
    Application of Psychology: Prevention and Management of AIDS

    Chapter 14: Abnormal Behavior
    - Definition of Abnormal Behavior
  • Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior
  • Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior
  • The Concept of Insanity
    - Anxiety Disorders
  • Phobias
  • Generalized and Panic Anxiety Disorders
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
    - Somatoform Disorders
  • Somatization Disorders and Hypochondriasis
  • Conversion Disorders and Somatoform Pain Disorders · Dissociative Disorders
  • Depersonalization
  • Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality) · Mood Disorders
  • Major Depression
  • Bipolar Disorder
    - Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Delusional Disorder
    - Personality Disorders
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Other Personality Disorders
    Application of Psychology: Psychology and Civil Liberties

    Chapter 15: Therapies
    - Definition of Psychotherapy
    - Ethical Standards for Psychotherapy
    - Psychoanalysis
  • Techniques of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
  • Catharsis
  • Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression
    - Humanistic Psychotherapy
  • Client-Centered Psychotherapy
  • Gestalt Psychotherapy
    - Behavior Therapy—REVISED!
  • Fear Reduction Methods
  • Social Skills Training
    - Cognitive Therapy
  • Relationship Between Cognition and Behavior
  • Maladaptive Cognitions
    - Other Approaches and Models of Therapy—REVISED!
  • Feminist Psychotherapy
  • Group Therapy
  • Family Therapy
  • Medical Therapies
    Application of Psychology: What to Do If You Think You Need Help


    Chapter 16: Social Psychology
    - Definition of Social Psychology
    - Groups and Social Influence
  • Lynch Mobs
  • Uninvolved Bystanders
  • Working and Solving Problems in Groups
  • Conformity, Social Roles, and Obedience
  • The Positive Side of Groups
    - Attitudes and Persuasion
  • Origins of Attitudes
  • Persuasion and Attitude Change
  • Behavior and Attitude Change: Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Prejudice and Stereotypes
    - Interpersonal Attraction: Friendship and Love
  • Person Perception
  • General Determinants of Interpersonal Attraction
  • Maintaining Relationships
    Application of Psychology: Stereotypes and Discrimination in the Workplace

    Chapter 17: Psychology Applied to Business and Other Professions
    - Applied Fields of Psychology
    - Psychology and Work: Employees and Managers Are People
  • Employee Selection and Evaluation
  • Validity of Job Selection Measures
  • Fairness in Employee Selection
  • Job Satisfaction, Happiness, and Productivity
  • Leadership
  • Psychology of the Entrepreneur—NEW!
  • Human Factors Engineering
  • Health Psychology in the Workplace
  • Other Applications of Psychology to the Workplace
    - Environmental Psychology
  • Office and Workspace Design
  • Architectural Design of Living Units
  • Environmental Protection—NEW!
    - Psychology and Law: The Behavior of Juries and Witnesses
  • Characteristics of Defendants and Plaintiffs
  • Characteristics of Jury Members
  • Psychological Factors in Presenting Evidence
  • Interrogating Criminal Suspects
    - Psychology and Education: Better Teaching and Testing
  • Mastery Learning and Intelligent Tutoring Systems
  • Project Follow Through: Educating Economically Disadvantaged Children
  • Person x Situation Interaction in the Classroom
  • Criterion-Referenced Testing
  • Mainstreaming: Education for Persons with Special Needs

    Appendix: Measurement and Statistics
    Lahey 8 cover

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