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Glossary


"Black Sambo" stereotype  A stereotype portraying black people as childlike, helpless, shuffling, and fumbling.
"yellow peril"  Asians were considered to be cunning and devious, and it was feared that they would invade the United States in hordes. This phrase was bandied about by American yellow journalism (e.g., The San Francisco Examiner, which was owned by William Randolph Hearst) in a move to stem the tide of Japanese immigration (30,000 per year at its peak), especially immigration into California. It culminated in the passage of the "Oriental Exclusion Act (1924)," which closed the gates to such immigration.
accommodation stage of assimilation  According to Robert Park's stages of assimilation, the accommodation phase is an unstable stage in which immigrants and their descendants are forced to change and adapt to their new environment. During this phase, there is some degree of stabilization of relations between immigrants and those in the host society, even if this accommodation forces migrants into lower social strata.
active bigots  Robert Merton defines active bigots are those who are prejudiced and quite willing to discriminate.
affirmative action  The civil rights laws of the 1960s, as interpreted by Executive Order 11246, required organizations doing business with, or receiving funds from, the government to increase minority representation in those organizations. In practice, these government mandates applied primarily to businesses receiving (directly or indirectly) government contracts and to education, especially higher education.
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (1971)  This act removed the sovereign status of Indian nations in Alaska by incorporating them into the United States. Approximately 44 million acres of Native-American lands were turned into U.S. assets. The importance of the act is that the incorporation of Native-American lands included the oil beneath and the timber on top.
all-weather liberals  Robert Merton defines all-weather liberals as those who are not prejudiced and do not discriminate.
American Indian Movement (AIM)  This organization represents a more radical movement to organize Native-American Nations to pursue political goals.
Anglo-Saxon and WASP  WASP is the acronym for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. An ethnic complex consisting of northern European ethnic stock with light, "white" skin; Protestant religious beliefs; Protestant-inspired values based on individualism, hard work, savings, secular material success, and English cultural traditions (e.g., language, laws, and beliefs) and institutional structures (e.g., politics, economics, and education).
anti-Semitism  Hostility or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic group.
ascetic Protestantism  Max Weber argued that the Puritans brought with them to the Americas a form of Protestantism that emphasized salvation, hard work, abstinence from temptation, and religiosity. These values formed the core of American values.
assimilation  The process by which members of an ethnic group become part of the broader culture and society, losing their distinctive character.
assimilation theories  Theories that conceptualize ethnic relations as a process of interpenetration and fusion in which persons and groups acquire the memories, sentiments, and attitudes of other groups, and, by sharing their experience and history are incorporated with them into a common cultural life. Robert Park and Milton Gordon are two major assimilation theorists.
asylee  A person in the United States or at a port of entry who is found to be unable or unwilling to return to his or her country of nationality because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution. Persecution, or the fear thereof, must be based on the alien's race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. Asylees do not enter the United States as refugees; rather, they petition for legal status once they are in the United States or at a point of entry.
Bakke v. The Regents of the University of California (1978)  Alan Bakke, a while male, challenged the validity of a special admissions program at the University of California at Davis School of Medicine after having twice been denied admission. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that quotas are illegal and that race cannot be used as the sole criterion for admissions.
behavioral-receptional assimilation  The absence of intentional discrimination by dominant ethnic groups against subordinate ethnic groups.
biological theories  Theories that emphasize the biological underpinnings of ethnicity. Sociobiological theories of ethnicity assume that social structures are merely "survival machines" that exist to maintain the fitness of genes. Thus, ethnicity represents a reproductive strategy for maximizing fitness beyond the narrower confines of kinship.
black codes  A name given to laws passed by southern governments established during the presidency of Andrew Johnson. These laws imposed severe restrictions on freed slaves, such as prohibiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, and limiting their ability to testify against white men or to work in certain occupations. According to these codes, black "vagrants" could be consigned to forced labor.
blood quantum  The measure of "Indian blood" an individual possessed.
blue laws  Laws regulating moral behavior; they also require businesses to close on Sundays.
Bracero Program  A labor contract system started in 1942 to fill the labor shortages in agriculture created by World War II. The Bracero Program operated from 1942 to 1964.
braceros  Mexican agricultural workers who participated in the Bracero Program.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)  The U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared that segregated schooling was inherently inferior and, hence, violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)  The BIA was created (1824) as an instrument of federal policies to subjugate and assimilate American Indian tribes and their peoples. Originally housed in the War Department, the BIA was later moved to the Department of Interior.
caste system  A system of rigid social stratification characterized by hereditary status, endogamy, and social barriers sanctioned by custom, law, or religion. In caste theories, African Americans constituted a distinctive caste that white Americans maintained for their own privileges.
caste theories  Theories used to describe the black-white relations where blacks were confined to lower socioeconomic positions, denied access to power, prevented from intermarriage, and segregated in their own living space. Oliver Cox offered a Marxist twist to this argument, emphasizing that the capitalist class of owners and managers of industry has been crucial to the castelike subordination of African Americans.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882  Legislation that suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers to the United States for ten years and prohibited persons of Chinese ancestry who were residing in the United States from obtaining U.S. citizenship after the effective date of the Act. An 1888 amendment to the Act applied exclusion to all Chinese immigrants except merchants, students, teachers, tourists, and government officials.
civic assimilation  The reduction of conflict between ethnic groups over basic values and access to the political arena.
Civil Liberties Act of 1988  Authorized the $20,000 compensation for living survivors of the Japanese-American relocation camps.
Civil Rights Act of 1875  Outlawed Jim Crow practices in the North and South. It declared that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement." In The Civil Rights Cases (1883), the U.S. Supreme Court had declared the Act unconstitutional and asserted that Congress did not have the power to regulate the conduct and transactions of individuals.
Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968  Passed to eliminate legal and informal discrimination in employment, unions, housing, schools, and voting booths.
colonialism theories  Theories drawing inspiration from the analysis of the dynamics of past European colonialism to analyze the process in which one population controls the political and economic activities of another.
colonization complex  Robert Blauner identified four components of the dynamics of colonization: (1) forced entry into a territory and its population; (2) alteration or destruction of the indigenous culture and patterns of social organization; (3) domination of the indigenous population by representatives of the invading society; and (4) justification of such activities with highly prejudicial, racist beliefs and stereotypes.
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (1983)  Established in 1980 by the U.S. Congress. The purpose of the CWRIC was to review the facts and circumstances surrounding both the decision to issue Executive Order 9066 as well as to assess the impact of the Order on the American citizens and resident aliens who were relocated and interned during World War II. At the Commission hearings, internment survivors spoke of their internment experiences for the first time in over 30 years. In 1983, the Commission made the following recommendations: (1) The U.S. government must offer an "official apology" to Japanese Americans; (2) the U.S. government should pardon Japanese Americans convicted of violating Executive Order 9066; (3) the U.S. government should establish a $1.5 billion fund, from which $20,000 would be paid to each of the approximately 60,000 survivors of the relocation camps.
competitive phase of assimilation  According to Robert Park's stages of assimilation, the competitive phase is the stage in which ethnic populations compete over resources (e.g., jobs, living space, and political representation).
Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT)  Formed in 1975 with the goal of forming an OPEC-like cartel to coordinate the development of, and perhaps manipulate the market for, the resources on reservation land.
cultural assimilation  Occurs when the values, beliefs, dogmas, ideologies, language, and other systems of symbols of the dominant culture are adopted.
Dawes Act of 1887  Also known as the General Allotment Act, this act was designed to break up the collective ownership of Indian lands by requiring Indians to identify themselves by means of a "blood quantum" code. Under the act, "full-blood Indians" received the deeds to land parcels over which the U.S. government exercised control for 25 years, and "mixed-blood Indians" received "patents in fee simple"-basically, land rental agreements-and were forced to accept U.S. citizenship.
discrimination  The process by which an individual, group, or subpopulation of individuals acts in ways that deny another individual, group, or subpopulation access to valued resources.
diversity rationale  Institutions of higher education interpreted Justice Lewis Powell, Jr.'s opinion in University of California v. Bakke (1978) as identifying a diversity rationale that allows the use of race as a selective factor in admissions as long as racial quotas are not promoted.
egalitarianism  The set of American core values. Egalitarianism stresses that people should be treated equally and given equal opportunities.
English as the Official Language Movement  Emerged as a powerful political movement in the 1980s, advocating a Constitutional amendment to make English the official language of the United States and the elimination of bilingual ballots and bilingual education. Two major Official English organizations are U.S. English and English First.
entrepreneurial resources  The occupational skills, education, money, and organizational abilities that an ethnic population possesses.
environmental racism  The practice whereby toxic wastes are dumped in neighborhoods inhabited by poor and relatively powerless ethnic groups. Waste-disposal sites are generally located in poor and minority neighborhoods.
ethnic cleansing policies  The attempts by the Serbs to "cleanse" the former Yugoslavia of Muslims and ethnic Albanians are examples of genocidal behavior.
ethnic discrimination  The process by which the members of a more powerful and dominant ethnic subpopulation deny the members of another, less powerful and subordinate ethnic population full access to valued resources-e.g., jobs, income, education, health, prestige, power, or anything that the members of a society value.
ethnic group  A subpopulation of individuals who are labeled and categorized by the general population, and often by the members of a group itself, as being part of a particular type of ethnicity. They reveal a unique history as well as distinctive behavioral, organizational, and cultural characteristics; as a result, they are often treated differently.
ethnicity  A socially constructed conception of a subpopulation of individuals who are perceived to reveal shared historical experiences as well as unique organizational, behavioral, and cultural characteristics.
ethnic population  Synonymous with ethnic group.
ethnic prejudices  Beliefs and stereotypes about designated subpopulations who share certain identifying characteristics-biological, behavioral, organizational, or cultural-or at least are perceived to share these identifying characteristics.
ethnic stratification  Refers to several interrelated processes: (1) the amount, level, and type of resources (e.g., jobs, education, health, money, power, and prestige) an ethnic subpopulation receives; (2) the degree to which these resource shares locate most members of an ethnic subpopulation in various social hierarchies; (3) the extent to which these resource shares contribute to those distinctive behaviors, organizations, and cultural systems that provide justification to the dominant group for making the ethnic subpopulation targets of discrimination.
ethnic subpopulation  Synonymous with ethnic group.
ethnogenesis  The process of creating a distinctive ethnicity as a means of adapting to discrimination, even as some degree of assimilation occurs. See pluralist theories.
ethny  A cluster of kinship circles created by endogamy (in which mate selection is confined to specific groups) and territoriality (physical proximity of its members and relative isolation from nonmembers).
exclusion  The pattern of discrimination that denies members of an ethnic group certain positions, independent of the effects of segregation.
Executive Order 9066  Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, this order established restricted military camps and authorized the building of Japanese-American relocation camps.
expulsion  The act of expelling members of an ethnic subpopulation from a country. Expulsion can take the form of direct coercion or it can be indirect. It is a common form of discrimination.
external colonialism  The process by which one nation controls the political and economic activities of another, less developed and less powerful society.
Fifteenth Amendment  Amended the United States Constitution (1870) and extended suffrage to African Americans.
fish-ins  Protests by the American Indian Movement and its supporters against government interference in traditional Native-American fishing areas.
Fourteenth Amendment  Amended the United States Constitution (1868) and provided equal protection for all people under the law. It was also an extension of an earlier civil rights act designed to overrule the emerging black codes.
G.I. Forum  A political organization that advocated the rights of Mexican-American war veterans, sought representation in Congress, encouraged voter registration, and focused attention on the segregation of schoolchildren.
genocide  The killing of members of an ethnic subpopulation or, potentially, the extermination of an entire ethnic group. It is the most intense form of discrimination.
Gentleman's Agreement of 1907  An accord reached between the United States and Japan in which Japan agreed not to issue passports to skilled or unskilled workers, except to those already in the United States or to the wives or children of these workers.
gerrymandering  The redrawing of the boundaries of a congressional district; the purpose of gerrymandering is either to concentrate opposition votes into a few districts to gain more seats for the majority in surrounding districts (packing) or to diffuse minority votes across many districts (dilution).
glass or bamboo ceiling  The perception held by Asian Americans that despite being qualified, their advancement in professional occupations is limited because of negative stereotypes others have of them.
hegemony  Domination by consent. The term is used to describe the way in which the ruling class projects its view of the world so that it becomes the consensus view.
Hirabayashi v. United States (1943)  The companion case to Yasui v. United States. Gordon Hirabayashi, a young Quaker and conscientious objector, tested the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Executive Order.
Hopwood v. Texas (1996)  In this opinion, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned a ruling that allowed the University of Texas School of Law to use "race" as a criterion when evaluating applicants. The Fifth Circuit determined that the school did not offer sufficient evidence that the Fourteenth Amendment allowed them to consider race in favor of Latinos and African Americans to the detriment of white applicants.
human ecology theories  Theories that stress the forces of competition, selection, and speciation of distinctive ethnic groupings; they emphasize that living patterns in urban areas are produced by a competition for scarce resources (e.g., land, housing, and jobs), escalating the level of conflict between ethnic sub-populations and thus forcing ethnic groups into segregated housing niches and a narrow range of economic positions.
humanitarianism  The cultural value that those who have suffered through no fault of their own should be helped.
identifiability  The degree to which the members of a subpopulation are visible and readily identifiable. The more distinctive the members of a subpopulation are, the more likely they are to become targets of discrimination.
identification assimilation  Occurs when individuals no longer see themselves as distinctive and, like members of the dominant groups, stake their personal identities to participation and success in the mainstream institutions of a society.
Immigration Act of 1917  Enacted to stop Japanese immigration, as well as immigration from other Asian countries. The act barred admission of any person from "islands not possessed by the United States adjacent to the Continent of Asia" or the continent of Asia (excluding Persia and parts of Afghanistan and Russia).
Immigration Act of 1924  Established the "national origins quota system." In conjunction with the Immigration Act of 1917, it governed American immigration policy until 1952 (see the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952). The Act set limited quotas for southern and eastern European immigrants and prohibited the immigration of Japanese aliens ineligible for U.S. citizenship. It also barred the immigration of Japanese wives, even if their husbands were U.S. citizens.
Immigration Act of 1965  Repealed the national origins quota system, and individual visas were granted-with priority given to family reunification, attracting needed skills to the United States, and refugees. Since 1965, sources of immigration to the United States have shifted from Europe to Latin America and Asia.
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)  Along with the Texas Rangers, the U.S. Border Patrol, and the state highway patrol, the INS has targeted Mexican Americans for discriminatory abuse. Mexican Americans are constantly subjected by these agencies to questions about their citizenship.
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)  Prohibited employers from hiring illegal immigrants and established a monitoring system for employer compliance. The amnesty provision of the IRCA offered legal status to (1) persons who had resided continuously in the United States since January 1, 1982, and (2) persons who could demonstrate that they had worked 90 days or more in designated agricultural labor between May 1985 and May 1986.
Indian Citizenship Act (1924)  Conferred U.S. citizenship on all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States. The Act's purpose was to curtail the demand for indigenous identity among Native Americans.
Indian Claims Commission Act (1946)  Designed to provide legal recourse to Native Americans who felt their land had been unjustly taken from them. The Act established the Claims Commission, which was responsible for hearing cases brought forward by Native Americans. The Commission, however, was not empowered to return land to any Native American; rather, it was required to assign a monetary value to the land in question-"at the time it was taken."
Indian Removal Act (1830)  Andrew Jackson used this act to force the mass relocation of the Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, and other Indian nations during the 1830s.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934  An attempt to secure new rights for Native Americans on reservations. The main provisions of the Act were to restore to Native Americans management of their assets (mostly land); to prevent further depletion of reservation resources; to build a sound economic foundation for the people of the reservations; and to return to the Native Americans local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also attempted to increase Indian participation in higher education by establishing loan and scholarship programs.
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975  Authorizes federally recognized Indian tribes the means to contract or compact with the federal government for the purpose of administering and operating federal programs, services, and functions that were established to serve that tribe. The act also supported the shifting of control of higher education from the federal government to the tribes.
Indian-white miscegenation laws  Laws prohibiting marriage between Indians and whites.
individualism  The set of American core values that stresses that people get ahead through their own efforts and hard work.
institutionalized discrimination  Discrimination that exists when cultural values, beliefs, laws, and norms sanction acts by individuals to deny others access to valued resources. These acts or practices are part of the way a social structure normally operates and are pervasive and persistent features of interaction between people.
internal colonialism  Views the history of ethnic relations in America as involving the establishment of internal colonies of people who are not white and who are dominated by descendants of the original Anglo-Saxon Protestant colonists. The motivation behind internal colonialism in the United States was twofold: (1) the need for cheap labor to increase profit and (2) the desire to take and control land, first from the Native Americans and later from the Mexicans.
Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act (1948)  Limited claims to a maximum of $2,500, with all claims to be submitted within 18 months of the act's passage. It took the federal government 17 years to process all the claims submitted; in the end, only $38 million (of the $131 million appropriated by Congress) was paid out.
Japanese American internment  Over 120,000 Japanese Americans were placed in internment camps after the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Japanese Americans were forced to sell property and businesses at a fraction of their value.
Jim Crow Practices  Began roughly in the late 1890s, when southern states began systematically to codify (or strengthen) in law and state constitutional provisions the subordinate position of African Americans in society. Most of these practices excluded African Americans from access to jobs, education, and housing. These practices were also aimed at separating the races in public spaces, such as public schools, parks, accommodations, and transportation.
Jones Act of 1917  Allowed Puerto Ricans free access to the U.S. mainland.
Keyes v. Denver School District No. 1 (1973)  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that evidence of governmental action to maintain segregation (e.g., site selection for schools or manipulation of attendance zones) was sufficient to require desegregation using busing and other means.
kin selection  [or inclusive fitness] Holds that family structures are a strategy allowing males and females to maximize their fitness by keeping as much of their genetic material as possible in the gene pool.
Korematsu v. United States (1944)  Challenged the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese Americans. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the internment camps.
La Raza Unida  Established in 1970 at a meeting of 300 Mexican Americans at Campestre Hall in Crystal City, Texas. José Ángel Gutiérrez and Mario Compean, who had helped found MAYO (the Mexican American Youth Organization) in 1967, were two of its principal organizers. La Raza Unida organized to bring greater economic, social, and political self-determination to Mexican Americans in Texas, where they held little or no power in many local or county jurisdictions, although they were often in the majority.
Latinos  The term does not denote a unified ethnic population. The label Latino includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Central and South Americans.
League of United American Citizens (LULAC)  Founded in 1929 by Mexican Americans who chose to refer to themselves as "Latins" in order to reinforce their loyalty to the United States.
long-term undocumented residents (LTUR)  Undocumented persons who had resided continuously in the United States since January 1, 1982.
Major Crimes Act (1885)  Allowed the United States to extend its jurisdiction into Native-American territories. Since the sovereignty of Native-American territories was defined by treaty, this act nullified the treaty's purpose, which had permitted Native Americans to exercise their own jurisdiction within their own territories.
Manifest Destiny  The philosophy that legitimated the seizing of Indian lands by whites. European Americans believed that they had the legitimate right, through divine ordination and natural superiority, to seize and occupy all of North America.
marginal participation  At times, subordinate ethnic subpopulations can find a niche where they can use their creative resources and prosper. Marginal participation tends to be most successful when the minority population is small and does not enter areas dominated by the majority.
Mariel boatlifts / Marielitos  In 1980, Fidel Castro released about 125,000 people from Cuban prisons and mental hospitals, beginning the Mariel boatlifts, which brought a different population to America. The U.S. responded by processing them at Eglin Air Force Base (Florida), where several riots broke out and federal troops were called in. Much of this population ended up either deported or imprisoned (for crimes or for what the Bureau of Prisons calls "temporary detention"), but many were released into the community, boosting local unemployment rates from 5 to 13 percent. The Marielitos were different from the earlier wave of Cuban refugees. The majority of the Marielitos were single, black adult males with a criminal background.
marital assimilation  Assimilation that occurs when there are high rates of intermarriage between the migrant and dominant ethnic groups.
middleman minority thesis  Argues that certain minorities bring to a host society entrepreneurial skills and perhaps some capital. Ironically, these very attributes pose a threat to dominant groups, and so these minorities are excluded from many middle-class positions and are allowed to operate only those businesses that serve their own ethnic group, other oppressed ethnics and, occasionally, more elite ethnic groups. Thus, these middlemen minorities become lodged in these middle niches, and movement to economic niches controlled by dominant groups is seen as threatening.
middlemen  Members of an ethnic subpopulation who have middle-or moderate-levels of resources, and who serve as the distribution links between producers of goods and those who buy them.
millenarian movements  Used to denote movements whose aim is the realization of a better world. Among Native Americans, millenarian movements such as the Ghost Dance believe that supernatural powers will intervene and return the people to some idealized era.
minority group  An ethnic subpopulation in a society subject to discrimination by members of more powerful ethnic subpopulations.
model minority stereotype  [or "myth of the model minority"] The view that Asian Americans have overcome all barriers to success in the U.S. It implies that they make up an intelligent, hard-working minority group that has achieved the American Dream.
National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)  The first truly nationwide organization to represent Native Americans and to engage in active lobbying in Washington, D.C.
National Origins Act of 1924  Passed to stop the flow of Japanese immigrants, the act barred the immigration of Japanese wives even if their husbands were U.S. citizens, and prohibited the immigration of Japanese aliens ineligible for U.S. citizenship. The act reinforced the legal decision in Ozawa v. United States (1922) that persons of Japanese ancestry could not become naturalized citizens.
negative beliefs and stereotypes  Codified negative portrayal about the perceived undesirable characteristics and qualities of a subordinate ethnic subpopulation.
Negro colleges  A system of private colleges that emerged in the 1800s as a means to circumvent the exclusion of African Americans from private and state colleges in the South.
Operation Wetback  A program launched by the Border Patrol in 1954, targeting Mexican immigrants who did not have papers identifying them as braceros. Congress gave the Border Patrol blanket authority to stop and search.
Orden Hijos de America  [The Order of the Sons of America] One of the first statewide Mexican-American civil-rights organizations in Texas. The state charter was obtained on January 4, 1922. The organization's purpose was to use its "influence in all fields of social, economic, and political action in order to realize the greatest enjoyment possible of all the rights and privileges and prerogatives extended by the American Constitution." It was formed by middle-class Mexican Americans to signal to the white population that they were interested in participating in mainstream American society-even at the expense of accepting negative stereotypes for their behavior.
organized protests  Broad-based, concerted efforts to change the patterns of discrimination.
Orthodox Jews  Jews who adhere to the Torah in strict terms-ritual, food preparation and consumption, and synagogue attendance.
Ozawa v. United States (1922)  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that only members of the "Caucasian" race were eligible for citizenship in the United States. Thus, a Japanese person who was born in Japan, being clearly not a Caucasian, could not be made a citizen of the United States.
Pan-Indianism  The unification of Native-American nations for explicitly political purposes.
papist  A derogatory term for a Catholic.
passive acceptance  If the power of an ethnic group is small and the magnitude of the discrimination is great, members of the group may have no choice but to accept the discrimination. Sometimes passive acceptance is not passive at all but, rather, the active manipulation of the situation.
percentage of Indian blood  An important bureaucratic marker for who is entitled to government assistance and who qualifies for special programs such as affirmative action.
peyotism  The religion of some Native North Americans in which the hallucinogenic peyote is used as the sacramental food. This movement sought to develop an inter-tribal religion, mixing some elements of Christianity and Mormonism that had been forced upon them with elements of their own religions.
Philippines Independence Act (1934)  [or The Tydings-McDuffie Act] Provided for a 10-year transition period to independence, during which the Commonwealth of the Philippines would be established. An annual quota of 50 Filipino immigrants was allowed into the United States. American entry and residence in the islands were unrestricted. Trade provisions of the act allowed for five years of free entry of Philippine goods during the transition period and five years of gradually steepening tariff duties thereafter, reaching 100 percent in 1946, whereas United States goods could enter the islands unrestricted and duty-free during the full 10 years.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregated facilities for blacks and whites were not in violation of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution.
pluralist theories  Theories stressing the maintenance of distinctive cultural, organizational, and behavioral characteristics. The maintenance of a distinct ethnic identity provides sources of support and guidance in a sometimes hostile world and is thus a way of coping with discrimination. When ethnic identity is nurtured, a pluralistic and permanent mosaic of ethnic subpopulations becomes evident.
political machines  Political organizations that provided some upward mobility for ethnic minorities in the city. The urban political machine was at the center of a web of relationships typically involving political parties, public officeholders seeking the vote, and a variety of businesses and other private interests seeking favors. Political machines turned out the vote in return for patronage they could distribute to their ethnic constituents.
prejudice  A set of beliefs and stereotypes about a category of people.
Presidential Proclamation 4417  Issued by President Gerald Ford in 1976, this proclamation rescinded Executive Order 9066 and apologized to the Japanese American community.
Puritanism  The key sect of ascetic Protestantism that the British brought with them to the Americas.
race  A socially constructed label that uses physical features such as skin color and facial features as highly visible markers of organizational, behavioral, and cultural differences among individuals. Thus, when someone is labeled "black," more than skin color is involved; whole clusters of assumptions about historical experiences, behavior, organization, and culture are associated with this label
racial profiling  The practice of law enforcement agencies using ethnic markers to assess the likelihood of potential crime. The result is that members of particular ethnic populations are likely to be singled out for special surveillance and potential harassment by police officers.
rebellion  Another response to discrimination, rebellions involve minorities "striking back" at the majority and venting their frustrations. At times, revolts can become extremely violent, mobilizing people for mass killings.
reciprocal altruism  People offer assistance to non-kin because they know that at some future time their acts of altruism will be reciprocated by those they help. Such reciprocation promotes fitness and, thereby, enables individuals to keep their genes in the pool.
redlining  The informal practices that make it difficult for residents of integrated neighborhoods or residents of less affluent neighborhoods with large numbers of African Americans to secure home mortgages.
Reform Jews  Jews who have modernized and secularized their religious activities.
refugee  A person who is outside his or her country of nationality who is unable or unwilling to return to that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution.
Refugee Act of 1980  An attempt by Congress to regulate the flow and number of refugees who qualified for admission to the United States.
Relocation Act (1956)  Created job-training centers in urban areas for Native Americans. The purpose of the act was to force Native Americans off the reservations by offering job-training opportunities only in urban areas. Native Americans participating in the job-training programs were required to sign formal agreements that they would not return to their reservations. Many Native Americans ended up in inner-city slums.
reluctant liberals  Robert Merton defines reluctant liberals as those who are unprejudiced but who will discriminate when it is in their interest to do so.
resource shares  The consistent and persistent amount of shares received by an ethnic subpopulation.
returns to education  The economic gains an individual may make by investment in their education.
reverse discrimination  A term often used to emphasize that programs and initiatives designed to redress the effects of past discrimination against members of a subordinate subpopulation often deny some members of the dominant subpopulation equal access to valued resources.
segregation  The process of spatially isolating an ethnic subpopulation in areas where they cannot have the same access to valued resources as do those who are not isolated.
selective inclusion  The process of allowing members of ethnic subpopulations into certain positions, while at the same time excluding them from other positions.
self-segregation  Another form of adaptation to discrimination. Members of a subpopulation withdraw and create a self-sustaining "society" within the broader society.
sense of threat  If a subordinate ethnic group is perceived as threatening the political power, the economic well being, the cultural symbols (language, customs, values, and beliefs), the social structures (community organization, social clubs, rituals, and holidays), and/or the basic institutions (economy, politics, family, church, school, and medicine) of a dominant ethnic group, this perception will translate into hostility, fueling the fires of discrimination.
special categories of agricultural workers (SCAW)  [or special agricultural workers (SAW)] Undocumented immigrants who performed labor in perishable agricultural commodities for 90 days or more between May 1985 and May 1996 and were admitted for temporary and then permanent residence under a provision of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
split-class theories  Theories that argue that the upper classes economically exploit those in the lower classes. Added to this class dynamics in capitalist society is the recognition that there are splits within each class along ethnic lines. Members of some ethnic subpopulations are subordinate within a class and are often relegated to the less desirable, lower-paying, and less secure jobs within this class.
split-labor market theories  Theories that examine how the partitioning of the labor market leads to ethnic conflict. To be split, a labor market must contain at least two groups of workers whose price of labor differs for the same work, or would differ if they did the same work. When the two competing groups are divided along ethnic lines, split-labor market theory holds that ethnic antagonism is likely to occur. Competition involves more than two antagonistic ethnic groups; it also involves third parties who wield power and who wish to maximize profit by stimulating competition between ethnic groups in the labor markets.
states' rights  A doctrine based on the Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which states," The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." Proponents of slavery and racial segregation invoked the doctrine of states' rights against federal civil rights and desegregation laws.
stratification theories  Theories that emphasize how the process of discrimination produces overrepresentation of members of ethnic subpopulations in various social classes. All of these theories place considerable emphasis on the mobilization of power in order to control where ethnic groups are placed in the class system.
structural assimilation  Assimilation that occurs when migrant ethnic groups become members of the primary groups within dominant ethnic subpopulations-their families, close friends, cliques within clubs, and groups within organizations.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that busing was an appropriate tool for achieving school integration.
The Texas Rangers  Created in 1835 to protect the Texas Republic from Mexicans, the Texas Rangers were given wide latitude in their treatment of Mexicans and Mexican Americans; as a consequence, beatings, lynchings, firing squads, and dismemberments were common.
The Young Lords  Formed in the 1960s as a militant organization committed to the struggle for human rights and for the liberation of Puerto Rico, the Young Lords set up community programs (e.g., free breakfasts for children, community testing for tuberculosis and lead poisoning, free clothing drives, cultural events, and Puerto Rican history classes). They published and distributed a newspaper called PALANTE and produced a weekly radio show on WBAI, also called PALANTE. They addressed issues concerning prisoners, women, the working poor, Vietnam War veterans, and high school students.
Thirteenth Amendment  Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1866) abolishing slavery.
timid bigots  Robert Merton defined timid bigots are those who are prejudiced, but afraid to show it.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)  Treaty that concluded the war between the United States and Mexico and that guaranteed to all Mexicans living in the "new" American territory a number of basic rights: full American citizenship, retention of Spanish as a recognized and legitimate language, political liberty, and ownership of property.
U.S. Border Patrol  Created in 1924 to protect the United States from Mexican infiltration, it was given authority by Congress to apprehend those suspected of illegal entry into the United States and to search persons and property within 25 miles of the U.S.-Mexico border.
Vincent Chin  The murder of Vincent Chin, a Chinese American, in Detroit was the result of his killers' resentment of Japanese automobile exports to the United States. His murder became a vivid symbol and source of outrage for Asian Americans in the 1980s. His death revitalized the Asian-American movement for social justice.
Voting Rights Act of 1965  Legislation that authorized the U.S. Attorney General to send federal examiners to register black voters under certain circumstances. It also suspended all literacy tests in states in which less than 50 percent of the voting-age population had been registered or had voted in the 1964 election. It also authorized the U.S. Attorney General to challenge the use of poll taxes.
WASP  The acronym for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. An ethnic complex consisting of northern European ethnic stock with light, "white" skin; Protestant religious beliefs; Protestant-inspired values based on individualism, hard work, savings, secular material success, and English cultural traditions (e.g., language, laws, and beliefs) and institutional structures (e.g., politics, economics, and education).
Weber v. Kaiser Aluminum (1979)  The United Steelworkers of America and the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation implemented an affirmative action-based training program to increase the number of the company's black skilled craft workers. The U.S. Supreme Court held that the training program was legitimate because the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not intend to prohibit the private sector from taking effective steps to use "race" as a criterion for hiring.
Yasui v. United States (1943)  A companion case to Hirabayshi v. United States. Minoru Yasui, a young attorney and army officer, tested the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Executive Order 9066 in both cases.