An adolescent who can think abstractly, imagine possibilities, and test hypotheses is in Piaget's stage of
A successful solution of the pendulum problem depends upon
|B)||trial and error|
|D)||varying one factor at a time|
According to Piaget, cognitive maturity is the product of
|C)||both a and b|
|D)||neither a nor b|
Piaget's definition of cognitive maturity has been criticized for failure to consider
|A)||nonscientific aspects of intelligence|
Although Frank, age 17, knows that drinking and driving is dangerous, he does it anyway. When his mother remonstrates, he tells her, "Get off my back, Mom--I'll be OK!" In Elkind's terminology, this is an example of
|B)||the personal fable|
|C)||finding fault with authority figures|
According to Kohlberg, a person's level of moral reasoning is related to
|A)||training by parents|
According to Kohlberg, people indicate their level of moral development by
|A)||their answer to a moral dilemma|
|B)||the length of time they spend thinking about a moral dilemma|
|C)||the reasoning behind their answer to a moral dilemma|
|D)||the kinds of moral dilemmas they consider|
In Kohlberg's third stage, maintaining mutual relations, children obey rules because they want to
|C)||do their duty|
|D)||please and help others|
Most adolescents are at which of Kohlberg's levels of moral development?
All but which of the following have contributed to doubts about Kohlberg's theory?
|A)||Research has failed to confirm his proposed sequence of stages.|
|B)||In some studies, men scored higher than women.|
|C)||People in nonwestern cultures score lower than westerners.|
|D)||The link between hypothetical and actual behavior is not clear.|
Parents can best foster adolescents' moral development by
|A)||letting them work out ethical dilemmas on their own|
|B)||asking clarifying questions|
Parents whose children do well in high school tend to be those who
|A)||encourage children to look at both sides of an issue|
|B)||teach children not to argue with adults|
|C)||"ground" children who get low grades|
|D)||leave it up to children to do their homework|
High school students with authoritative parents tend to be higher achievers and better adjusted, regardless of all but which of the following?
A longitudinal study in St. Paul found that high school seniors who work more than 20 hours a week tend to
|A)||get lower grades than other students|
|B)||drink more than other students|
|C)||feel depressed and overburdened|
|D)||have behavior problems at school|
Which of the following statements about the relationship between socioeconomic status and achievement in high school is true?
|A)||Parents' educational and occupational levels are determining factors in student achievement.|
|B)||Socioeconomic status is only weakly related to student achievement.|
|C)||Socioeconomic status indirectly affects student achievement through its influence on family and school atmosphere.|
|D)||There is no significant relationship between socioeconomic status and student achievement.|
Which of the following is most likely to drop out of high school?
|D)||All of the above are equally likely to drop out.|
All but which of the following have been found to affect the risk of dropping out of high school?
Which of the following statements about parental influence on educational aspirations is true?
|A)||Children of well-to-do parents have the highest aspirations.|
|B)||Children's aspirations for themselves tend to be quite different from their parents' aspirations for them.|
|C)||Parental encouragement predicts children's high aspirations better than social class does.|
|D)||none of the above; no connection between parental influence and children's educational aspirations has been found|