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PRAXIS Exam 1: Understanding Exceptionalities
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Rachel is a young child who struggles with phonemic awareness and rapid automatic naming, which is the ability to quickly name stimuli such as digits, letters, and simple objects. Most likely, Rachel has which of the following disabilities?
A)learning disability related to mathematics
B)learning disability related to reading
C)learning disability related to attention
D)intellectual disability
E)communication disorder
Seven-year-old Katie has been identified as having an intellectual disability. Katie may exhibit all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A)difficulty using abstract thought and language.
B)deficits in applying learning to new, yet similar situations.
C)language delays
D)an IQ that is 90-110
E)difficulty making friends with peers who have no disabilities.
When considering emotional or behavioral disorders, which of the following student characteristics tend to increase with age?
A)alcohol and drug use
B)poor school work
C)secretive behaviors
D)overweight and under-active
E)All the answers are correct.
Ten-year-old Lauren exhibits signs of a communication disorder. She frequently omits and misuses words that she should know and be able to use in everyday speech. For example, Lauren often says things like, “Look at the childs in park” or “I runned home”. This is an example of which of the following language disorders?
A)phonological processing disorder
B)morphological disorder
C)syntactic disorder
D)semantic disorder
E)pragmatics disorder
Research and the results of standardized testing show that students with hearing losses generally score lower than their hearing counterparts in academic achievement. Which of the following can help these children acquire the literacy skills they need to succeed in school and later in life?
A)Limit curriculum to literacy instruction.
B)Focus on American Sign Language (ASL) instruction in separate, deaf-only classes.
C)Since deaf students cannot learn to read or comprehend grade-level material, instruction should focus on functional academics.
D)Use spoken language as the primary mode of communication for all students.
E)Provide early exposure to ASL, if appropriate, and English instruction in reading and writing.
Although IDEA 04 only defines infants and toddlers as “at risk,” many school-aged children are also at risk for developmental delays or academic problems. Which of the following factors is often related to being at risk of school failure?
B)dual-working parents
C)average performance on standardized tests
D)high-achieving older siblings
Both Tyler and his identical twin brother Travis have attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). According to research, which of the following is a likely cause of ADHD? a. food additives and sugar
A)food additives and sugar
B)too much television viewing
C)hormonal differences
D)neurological differences
E)poor parenting or teaching
Anne has Rett syndrome and exhibits breathing difficulties, seizures, an unsteady gait, and delayed growth. She depends on special transportation to go to school and requires a special aide in the classroom. Anne would most likely be classified with which of the following disabilities?
A)communication disorder
B)severe disabilities
C)orthopedic impairment
D)behavioral disorder
E)learning disability
Josie has difficulty developing effective cognitive strategies when learning and applying new information. For example, she struggles to comprehend the overall meaning of text after sounding out each individual word. After she finishes reading a passage, Josie is unable to remember and apply the information when answering questions on a worksheet. Josie most likely has which of the following disabilities?
A)communication disorder
B)mental retardation
C)learning disability
D)emotional disorder
E)severe disabilities
Merrill suffers from severe anxiety and withdraws from social interactions with peers. He also has extremely low self-esteem and frequently exhibits depressive symptoms. Merrill would most likely be classified as having which of the following?
A)conduct disorder
B)externalizing emotional disorder
C)internalizing emotional disorder
D)motor tension disorder
To function successfully in communication, the rules of all the components of language, such as phonology and morphology, must be mastered to a certain degree. Seven-year-old Javier speaks fluent Spanish at home but makes frequent morphology and syntax errors when speaking English. Which of the following is most likely the cause for Javier’s English-language difficulties?
A)Javier has expressive language disorder.
B)Javier has an organic communication disorder, most likely resulting from birth trauma.
C)Javier has a severe articulation disorder.
D)Javier lacks basic interpersonal communication skills.
E)Javier has mastered a set of rules for Spanish and is acquiring a new set of language rules for English.
Which of the following is NOT one of the categories under IDEA 04 that comprise the area of physical and health disabilities?
A)orthopedic impairment
B)traumatic brain injury
C)other health impairment
D)blindness or low vision
E)All of these are categories of physical and health disabilities.
Emily has a disease caused by brain damage that affects her movement and motor development. When Emily’s teacher asks her to pick up a pencil and write, she has difficulty initiating the movement. When Emily finally grasps the pencil, she is unable to control her arm and hand and she scribbles on the page. Emily has which of the following disabilities?
A)cerebral palsy
B)spina bifida
E)cystic fibrosis
John has an orthopedic disability and his teacher wants to foster his self-determination skills through a goal-setting plan. In order to have healthy social and emotional development, the plan should have John identify and set goals for himself in which of the following areas?
B)independent performance
E)All the answers are correct.
Marissa is in the gifted and talented program at school. Which of the following scenarios most likely describes Marissa’s home environment?
A)Marissa’s home environment is insignificant; gifted and talented students have innate abilities that thrive regardless of their surroundings.
B)Marissa’s parents are highly educated and they provided a stable and stimulating early environment.
C)Marissa comes from a single-parent family in a low-income neighborhood.
D)Being gifted and talented is hereditary, and both of Marissa’s parents are gifted and talented.
E)Marissa’s parents speak English as a second language and require her to help in the family business during non-school hours.
Quinn has been diagnosed with the most prevalent of the autism spectrum disorders, which is characterized by behavioral deficits in three broad categories: social interaction, communication, and restrictive or repetitive behaviors. Quinn has which of the following?
A)autistic disorder (autism)
B)Asperger syndrome
C)Rett syndrome
D)childhood disintegrative disorder
E)pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified
Three-year-old Robert has low vision and he is exhibiting delays in movement and social interaction skills. He shows little interest in exploring his environment and rarely seeks out companionship with peers. In which of the following ways does Robert’s low vision relate to developmental delays in other areas?
A)Vision provides incentives for movement and communication.
B)Vision helps children estimate space.
C)Vision stimulates coordination and control.
D)All the answers are correct.
E)None of the answers are correct; vision does not impact development in these areas.
Joshua frequently produces atypical speech sounds. For example, he says, “bacation” instead of “vacation” and he says, “thlide” instead of “slide”. Joshua has a(n)
A)voice disorder.
B)articulation disorder.
C)fluency disorder.
D)syntax disorder.
E)pragmatics disorder.
Miranda suffers from an emotional disorder and frequently cries, screams, and complains of stomachaches. She has no close friends and feels anxious when trying to communicate with others. Research shows that Miranda most likely also has problems in which of the following areas?
A)information processing and memory
C)motor development
E)physical disabilities
The most recent definitions of mental retardation by IDEA 04 and AAIDD both place a stronger emphasis on
A)identifying limitations and areas of need.
B)ignoring cultural and linguistic differences.
C)identifying supports that will help individuals grow in knowledge and skills.
D)finding similarities among students in this disability category.
E)measuring intelligence levels.

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