Read each question carefully and then select the best answer.
According to the dynamic systems theory proposed by Esther Thelen:
|A)||mastering a motor skill requires the use of the nervous system, motivational factors, and environmental opportunities.|
|B)||the development of motor skills is primarily biologically driven.|
|C)||the development of motor skills is primarily dependent on environmental factors.|
|D)||motor skills are initially driven by biological forces but become increasingly dependent on environmental influences.|
The dynamic systems theory of motor development emphasizes:
|A)||a genetic blueprint.|
|D)||exploration and selection.|
T. Berry Brazelton (1956) found that most infants:
|A)||engage in sucking primarily for nutrition.|
|B)||continue to exhibit the sucking reflex into toddlerhood.|
|C)||engage in considerable sucking behavior unrelated to feeding.|
|D)||must learn how to suck in order to ensure sufficient nutrition.|
Which infant motor event typically occurs first?
|A)||stands with support|
|B)||holds the head erect|
|D)||sits without support|
Which of the following reflexes occurs when an infant's cheek is stroked or the side of his or her mouth is touched?
Diane notices that sudden stimulation causes her 2-month-old to arch his back, throw his head back, fling out his arms and legs, and then rapidly close them to the center of his body. Diane's baby is exhibiting the reflex.
Arms are to _______ as fingers are to _______.
|B)||gross motor; fine motor|
|C)||fine motor; gross motor|
|E)||b; LO: 3; Level: conceptual|
Compared with right-handers, which of the following BEST describes left-handed children?
|A)||They may have less spatial ability and less academic intelligence.|
|B)||They may have better spatial ability but less academic intelligence.|
|C)||They may have less spatial ability but more academic intelligence.|
|D)||They may have better spatial ability, and they do as well academically.|
What is the BEST explanation for handedness?
|A)||genetics and nutrition|
|B)||positive reinforcement and punishment|
|C)||modeling and conditioning|
|D)||environment and genetics|
Pediatricians recommend that parents:
|A)||slowly ease their babies into structured exercise regimes.|
|B)||enroll their babies in exercise classes.|
|C)||use exercise sessions as a way to bond with their babies.|
|D)||avoid structured exercise classes for babies.|
Romero is a normal 3-year-old. We would expect that he would be able to:
|A)||scramble over a jungle gym.|
|B)||run back and forth.|
|C)||climb on the kitchen counter.|
Hallie is active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is not afraid of doing what her parents consider to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves to run and believes she is faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is MOST characteristic of the:
Current patterns of relative physical inactivity will lead to less development in which of the following?
|B)||fine motor skills|
|D)||gross motor skills|
Peak physical performance is typically reached:
|A)||in early adolescence.|
|B)||in late adolescence.|
|C)||in early adulthood.|
|D)||at different times, depending on the activity.|
Which of the following statements BEST summarizes physical changes during the thirties?
|A)||Young adults have more diseases than children due to bad health habits.|
|B)||Young adults are less healthy than they will be during middle adulthood.|
|C)||Young adults are healthy and fit but are beginning to decline in some areas.|
|D)||Young adults show peak performances in most sports but show significant declines in sensory systems.|
Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill?
|B)||raising a hand|
|C)||buttoning a shirt|
|D)||kicking a ball|
During middle and later childhood, girls usually excel at _______ skills, whereas boys are better at _______ skills.
|C)||gross motor/fine motor|
|D)||fine motor/gross motor|
The main difference between sensation and perception is that:
|A)||sensation involves memory for stimuli, perception does not.|
|B)||sensation involves attaching meaning to stimuli, perception does not.|
|C)||perception involves attaching meaning to stimuli, sensation does not.|
|D)||perception involves initial encounters with stimuli, sensation does not.|
Opportunities for interactions offered by objects that are necessary to perform functional activities are called:
_______ give people such information as when to duck, when to turn their body through a narrow passageway, and when to put their hand up to catch something.
Based on infant visual perception research, which of the following is true?
|A)||Infants probably have innate perception of patterns.|
|B)||Infants do not perceive facial features until after 6 months.|
|C)||Infants have normal 20/20 vision within 1 month after birth.|
|D)||Infants do not perceive depth until after they have experience with crawling.|
What is the main difference between an adult's ability to hear and an infant's ability to hear?
|A)||Infants have superior hearing.|
|B)||Infants have higher thresholds for sound.|
|C)||Infants cannot distinguish pitch.|
|D)||Infants cannot hear at birth.|
Was William James right when he proclaimed that newborns experience a "blooming, buzzing" world of confusion?
|A)||No, because infants display visual preferences.|
|B)||Yes, because infants' visual acuity is less than that of adults.|
|C)||Yes, because infants sense the world but do not perceive it.|
|D)||No, because infants' reflexes allow for organization into perceptual categories|
The newborn's vision is estimated to be:
Which of the following is TRUE?
|A)||Newborns can differentiate between odors.|
|B)||Newborns have difficulty hearing sounds.|
|C)||Newborns can distinguish all colors.|
|D)||Newborns respond somewhat poorly to touch.|
In Gibson and Walk's (1960) experiment, infants placed on one side of a visual cliff refused to go to their mothers who coaxed them from the other side, demonstrating:
|B)||failure of visual acuity.|
|C)||inability to hear at a distance.|
|D)||inability to crawl.|
Rozee's eyes have cloudy, opaque areas in the lens that prevent light from passing through, causing her to have blurred vision. The visual problem she has is:
Compared to younger adults, older adults are _____ sensitive to pain.
|D)||Sensitivity does not change over time.|
Robert Fantz (1963) found that infants as young as 2 days old:
|A)||were able to focus on their mothers' eyes.|
|B)||were able to distinguish contour.|
|C)||showed a preference for patterned stimuli over plain stimuli.|
|D)||began to perceive the oval shape of the head.|
What evidence indicates that a fetus can hear?
|A)||A fetus moves when a loud noise occurs.|
|B)||Newborns prefer their mother's voice to strangers' voices.|
|C)||Hearing is more sensitive and better developed among newborns who have been experimentally stimulated before birth.|
|D)||Newborns prefer to hear stories that were read to them in their mother's womb.|
Research suggests that sensitivity to taste begins:
|B)||within the first week after birth.|
|C)||within the first month after birth.|
|D)||increasingly over the first year of life.|
Decline in taste with age often leads to:
|A)||compensation by eating healthier foods.|
|B)||an increased preference for highly seasoned foods.|
|C)||a decrease in appetite that may result in health problems.|
|D)||a decrease in appetite that may result in a longer life.|
When considering perceptual-motor capabilities, Esther Thelen believes that:
|A)||perceptual and motor development proceed in isolation.|
|B)||perceptual and motor development do not exist in young infants.|
|C)||perceptual and motor development are coupled.|
|D)||parents teach their children perceptual and motor skills.|
Recognizing that decreasing volume in the sound of a car engine goes with the sight of a car moving away rather than moving toward you is an example of:
Jessica turned her head when she heard footsteps in the hall, then she smiled when she saw her mother come into the room. This demonstrates _______ perception.
Recent research (Thelen, 2000) on perceptual and motor development suggests that:
|A)||there is a clear distinction between perceiving and doing.|
|B)||perceptual and motor development do not occur in isolation from one another.|
|C)||motor skills decline with age, but perception remains relatively constant.|
|D)||"perception educates action."|