Read each question carefully and then select the best answer.
Jean Piaget gathered the information for his theories about cognitive development by:
|A)||reviewing the literature on cognitive development.|
|B)||surveying thousands of parents.|
|C)||observing his own children.|
|D)||testing hundreds of children in his laboratory.|
Piaget called frameworks that organize and interpret information:
Tim likes to explore his parent's house through touch. One day he touches the oven and burns his hand. Tim learns that although some things can be touched, ovens should not. This experience is an example of:
|C)||the Oedipus complex.|
The cognitive balance that children are motivated to achieve when experiencing cognitive conflict is:
The Piagetian stage during which understanding of the world comes about through sensory experiences and motor actions is the:
|C)||concrete operational stage.|
|D)||formal operational stage.|
According to Piaget, during the first sensorimotor substage, infants' behaviors are:
Which is the best example of Piaget's concept of a habit?
|A)||learning to suck on a nipple and later being able to do it while sleeping|
|B)||accidentally shaking a rattle, which produces a sound, and then purposefully shaking the rattle to produce the sound|
|C)||initially blinking reflexively in response to a bright light and then blinking when no stimulus is present|
|D)||learning to laugh at people who slip on ice and fall down|
What is object permanence?
|A)||the idea that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be directly viewed|
|B)||the variety of properties that objects possess|
|C)||the combining and recombining of previously learned schemas in a coordinated way|
|D)||the reproduction of an interesting event that happens by chance|
When D'Andre was 5 months old, he looked at a toy train, but when his view of the train was blocked, he did not search for it. Now that he is 9 months old, he does search for it, reflecting the presence of:
Much of the new research on cognitive development in children suggests that:
|A)||Piaget's view was accurate.|
|B)||Piaget's view was wrong.|
|C)||Piaget's view needs to be modified.|
|D)||it is impossible to replicate Piaget's research because it was done primarily on his three children.|
Which of the following findings challenges Piaget's theory of sensorimotor development?
|A)||Between 4 and 8 months, infants can imitate simple actions made by adults.|
|B)||At 2 years of age, infants have symbolic thought.|
|C)||Between 12 and 18 months of age, infants explore the properties of objects.|
|D)||Infants as young as 4 months of age can coordinate information from two senses.|
The Piagetian concept in which an infant makes frequent mistakes, selecting the familiar hiding place rather than a new hiding place is:
|B)||the AB error.|
|D)||an example of operations.|
In talking with Grandma on the phone, the child suddenly exclaims, "Oh, look at that pretty red bird!" When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, the little boy says, "Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!" He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:
A young child might be heard saying, "That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down." The child's belief that the tree has "human" qualities and is capable of action is referred to as:
In Piaget's theory, "operations" refer to:
|B)||words and visual images.|
|C)||abstract levels of thinking.|
|D)||internalized mental actions.|
_______ is clearly evidenced in young children's lack of conservation when they focus their attention on one characteristic (such as height or length) to the exclusion of others.
To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children need to be able to use the skill of:
Tyrell understands that his father can also be a son and a brother, all at the same time. This suggests that Tyrell is in the:
|C)||concrete operational stage.|
|D)||formal operational stage.|
During what stage of development can a child take a group of Legos and place them in order from largest to smallest?
Reversible mental actions are called:
According to Piaget, _______ operational thought comes into play between 11 and 15 years of age.
The cognitive ability to solve problems that develops in adolescence is termed _______ by Piaget.
When playing the modified "Twenty Questions" game in which she is supposed to determine which picture of 42 the experimenter has in mind, Elnora asks questions in a systematic way, such as, "Is it in the top half of the display?" Elnora is exhibiting:
|C)||concrete operational thought.|
Personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent:
Stephanie, a 15-year-old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Stephanie experiencing?
The personal fable involves an adolescent's sense of:
Which of the following is an application of Piaget's ideas to education?
|A)||We need to know how children understand the world to teach them effectively.|
|B)||Children's illogical or distorted ideas about the world make it hard for them to learn.|
|C)||The pattern of mental development is universal, so one curriculum could be developed and used for all children.|
|D)||By the third or fourth grade, children are ready for abstract learning.|
The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is a measure of:
According to Lev Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), learning is:
|A)||achieved by discovering which answers will lead to rewards.|
|B)||achieved by assimilating new understandings to accommodate the demands of the world.|
|C)||affected by how the environment and genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.|
|D)||a social activity between a less-knowledgeable child and another adult or child who is more knowledgeable.|
A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development if:
|A)||the toddler has mastered all the skills necessary.|
|B)||parents or teachers do not interfere.|
|C)||the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.|
|D)||the toddler needs little or no help from a parent or teacher.|
When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, what is this called?
|D)||zone of proximodistal development|
Which of the following reflects Lev Vygotsky's beliefs about language and thought?
|A)||Children who engage in high levels of private speech are usually socially incompetent.|
|B)||Children use internal speech earlier than they use external speech.|
|C)||All mental functions have external, or social, origins.|
|D)||Language and thought initially develop together and then become independent.|
According to Vygotsky, an institutional component that influences cognitive development is:
|A)||a child's interactions with a teacher.|
|B)||watching educational programs on television.|
|C)||the traditions of a child's ethnic group.|
|D)||the use of computers to teach math concepts.|
Which of the following is TRUE of Vygotsky's educational applications?
|A)||IQ should be assessed to test a child's learning.|
|B)||Teachers should begin instruction at a level far below the students' abilities.|
|C)||The child's use of private speech should not be encouraged.|
|D)||Practical teaching should begin toward the upper limit of the zone of proximal development.|
Vygotsky believed that cognitive development was most influenced by which of the following factors?
Latoya talks to herself often, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Vygotsky would say Latoya is:
|A)||engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.|
|B)||using private speech to organize and regulate her thinking.|
|C)||functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development.|
|D)||using the institutional level of thinking to learn about her cultural conventions.|
The main cognitive change between the fourth and fifth stages of cognitive development is:
With respect to adult cognitive processes, psychologist K. Warner Schaie (1977) concluded that:
|A)||adults enter a postformal operational stage involving more complex strategies.|
|B)||many adults revert back to a pragmatic concrete stage rather than using formal operational thought.|
|C)||adults do not go beyond formal operational thought, but they do progress in how they use their intellect.|
|D)||adults in certain careers (e.g., higher education) tend to go into a postformal operational stage, but most others do not.|
Life-span development students often complain, "Why do we have to learn all of these theories? Why don't you just teach us the right one?" According to William Perry, this complaint reflects:
|A)||absolute, dualistic thinking|
|B)||dualistic, reflective thinking|
|C)||reflective, relativistic thinking|
|D)||full relativistic thinking|