Site MapHelpFeedbackMultiple Choice Quiz
Multiple Choice Quiz
(See related pages)

Joseph II instituted all of the following "enlightened" reforms EXCEPT
A)free expression, religious toleration, and greater state control of the Church.
B)the end of judicial torture and class distinctions in the administration of justice.
C)convocation of the estates as a parliamentary forum for political discussion.
D)abolition of serfdom and creation of a freeholding peasantry.
E)limits on financial obligations of peasant tenants to their landlords and to the state.
"Enlightened absolutism" failed to achieve many lasting reforms for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)a lack of genuine commitment on the part of some of the monarchs.
B)a preference for administrative reforms rather than empowerment of citizens.
C)entrenched opposition from the aristocracy, the clergy, and privileged, or just conservative, commoners.
D)the efforts weakened the states and made them vulnerable to conquest by others.
E)resistance from the peasants—the people who were to benefit most—because of their distrust of the state.
The pre-Revolutionary constitutional crises in Western Europe were fueled by all of the following EXCEPT
A)attempts by the aristocracy to improve their position visa-vie the monarchy.
B)general correspondence between the views of the clergy and those of the aristocracy.
C)democratic agitation by unprivileged commoners against both monarchy and aristocracy.
D)overtures by the monarchs to the commoners to form a common front against the aristocracy.
E)demands by urban artisans for more of a voice in governmental policy-making.
Upheavals in the British Empire included all of the following EXCEPT
A)radical agitation by merchants and gentry against the crown and aristocracy.
B)the struggle between John Wilkes and the crown over his vicious criticisms of the government.
C)agitation by groups of solid citizens for parliamentary reform.
D)opposition and ultimately rebellion in Britain's North American colonies.
E)organizations calling for greater freedom of the press.
Political agitation in America differed fundamentally from that in Europe because the Americans
A)appealed to traditional rights of all British and theories of popular sovereignty and natural rights.
B)focused on practical issues like opposition to taxation rather than abstract principles of liberty.
C)grounded their protests in the body of privileges that the monarchy violated with its new tax plans.
D)organized their protests on the basis of interest groups: landowners, merchants, and artisans.
E)dissent was organized by local militia.
The American Revolution was pathbreaking for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)it maintained an alliance between social strata based on a shared commitment to legal equality.
B)it created the first modern government based on participation and consent of the citizens.
C)it created a government that balanced the aspirations of the common people with the military leadership.
D)it was the first successful rebellion by overseas colonies against their European masters.
E)it established political rights and legal equality for all adult men.
The Revolution of 1789 was caused by all of the following EXCEPT
A)new theories of politics emphasizing rationality and popular sovereignty over tradition and divine right.
B)growing assertiveness on the part of the aristocracy that made it ready to exploit the king's fiscal woes.
C)the desire of the bourgeoisie to win political control of the nation to match its socioeconomic dominance.
D)popular discontent caused by overpopulation, crop failures, grain shortages, and high levels of vagrancy.
E)the example of the American Revolution.
The core of the monarchy's fiscal problem was its
A)heavy spending in support of the American rebels.
B)lavish spending on court festivities and frivolities.
C)refusal to consider significant reform measures to tap the nation's wealth.
D)inability to find competent ministers to put reform measures into place.
E)historic inability to tax privileged groups.
The critical question as the Estates General met was whether it would meet as one or three chambers because
A)the Third Estate had twice as many representatives, and so could dominate a combined chamber.
B)the nobles and clergy plus conservative commoners would dominate a combined chamber.
C)the double vote given the Third Estate meant that three separate chambers would constantly deadlock.
D)the liberal clergy could ally the First Estate with the Third to achieve a majority of two of three chambers.
E)of threats of a rebellion by the nobles.
The Estates General legally became the National Assembly when
A)Louis XVI and Necker met with it on May 5 and established its voting procedures.
B)the Third Estate invited the others to join it and proclaimed itself the National Assembly..
C)the king, faced with the Third Estate's refusal to meet separately, ordered the other estates to join it.
D)the people of Paris stormed the Bastille and took over the municipal government.
E)the First Estate ceded all authority to the Third.
The different revolutions that converged during the summer of 1789 included all of the following EXCEPT
A)the Parisian insurrection of July 14 that forestalled a military coup by royalist forces.
B)the "Great Fear," in which peasants across the country rebelled against their seigniorial landlords.
C)the August 4 Decree abolishing feudalism and the Declaration of the Rights of Man setting the new order.
D)the storming of the Tuileries and the suspension of the king by the Legislative Assembly.
E)the peasant uprising over heavy church tithes and rumors of counter-revolution.
Between 1789 and 1791 the National Assembly accomplished all of the following EXCEPT
A)shifting power to citizens with property and creating a limited monarchy and powerful legislature.
B)extending civil and political equality to Jews and blacks in France's Caribbean colonies.
C)reforming and standardizing local administration and replacing the old judicial system.
D)applying principles of laissez-faire to economics.
E)debating the extension of political rights to women.
The National Assembly's religious policy included all of the following EXCEPT
A)confiscating ecclesiastical property, issuing notes backed by its value, and auctioning off the land.
B)reforming the administration of the Catholic Church in France.
C)encouraging the clergy to renounce their vocations and marry.
D)requiring the clergy to take an oath of loyalty to the constitution.
E)the church could no longer exist as an independent corporation—as a separate estate within the state.
The effect of the National Assembly's religious policy was to
A)lay a lasting foundation for the government's finances.
B)alienate most of the clergy and many devout French people.
C)undermine the long-term viability of Catholicism in France.
D)create the basis of a lasting partnership between church and state.
E)provoke a counter-revolution led by members of the clergy and their supporters.
The monarchy fell in August, 1792 because of all of the following EXCEPT
A)the king's long-standing and increasingly apparent opposition to the revolution.
B)the outbreak of war against Austria, Prussia, and the counter-revolutionary émigrés.
C)the king's veto of measures to suppress dissidents and mobilize the national guard around Paris.
D)the royalist coup attempt by political prisoners held in Parisian jails supported by the Duke of Brunswick.
E)the king's apparent treasonous relationship with the Prussian Duke of Brunswick.
The main parties in the National Convention included all of the following EXCEPT
A)the Girondins, who advocated provincial liberty and laissez-faire economics.
B)the Mountain, the more radical faction, which demanded bold measures to protect the revolution.
C)the Plain, the majority of delegates, who were uncertain which path to follow.
D)the sans-culottes, who denounced even the Mountain as too moderate.
E)the Jacobin Club, Paris's most radical faction from whom the leadership of the Mountain were drawn.
The Convention faced violent opposition from all of the following EXCEPT
A)anti-revolutionary peasants, émigrés, royalists, and moderates in the west and south.
B)the Paris Commune, which insisted that it actually embodied the will of the nation.
C)Parisian sans-culottes who wanted radical measures like price controls and execution of speculators.
D)an enlarged foreign coalition including Austria, Prussia, Spain, Piedmont, and Britain.
E)priests and other functionaries of the Catholic Church who resisted the revolution at all costs.
After the purge of the Girondins, the Jacobin Dictatorship was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
A)implementation of the constitution drafted by the Convention to deal with the emergency situation.
B)laws imposing price controls.
C)rule by the "Committee of Public Safety" led by Robespierre.
D)a "Reign of Terror" that killed anti-revolutionaries, political opponents, and citizens thought suspicious.
E)laws allowing the arrest of suspected traitors.
The sans-culottes were politically mobilized urban common people who favored all of the following EXCEPT
A)price controls and punishment of profiteers.
B)antiaristocratic styles of dress, manners, and morals.
C)decentralized, direct democracy.
D)land reform to increase the holdings of small farmers.
E)an end to laissez-faire economic policies.
The Revolutionary war effort was successful for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)the enthusiasm of soldiers fighting to defend their newly won freedoms.
B)the ability of the state to mobilize men and material on a far greater scale than before.
C)the new tactics using massive attack columns in place of the well-drilled lines of the old army.
D)the massive uprisings of common people in bordering countries and the enemy nations.
E)the military was under civilian control, and discipline applied equally to officers and men thus forging loyalty among the troops.

The Western ExperienceOnline Learning Center with Powerweb

Home > Chapter 20 > Multiple Choice Quiz