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Human Anatomy, 6/e
Kent Van De Graaff, Weber State University


Medical Terms Combining Forms

Listed here are all of the prefixes, suffixes and combining forms printed on the inside of the front and back covers of the textbook and some additional roots. The long-term benefit of a systematic study of terminology is an increased ability to comprehend new terms as they are encountered in the professional literature.


a- (an-)  Without, lack of

ab-  Off; away

-able  Capable

acou-  Hearing

acr-  Extremity

ad- (af-)  To; toward

adeno-  A gland

-aero -aerob  Air, of the air

-al  Relationship to (adj.)

-algia  Pain

andro-  Male

ante-  Before, forward

anti-  Against, reversed

api-  The tip

apo-  Away from; off

arachn-  Spider

-art-,arteri-  An artery

arthr-  Joint

-ary  Relationship to (adj.)

aryten-  A pitcher; a ladle

auscult-  To listen; to hear

-asis  Condition, state of

astr-  A star

auto-  Arising within, self

axilla-  The armpit

baro-  Pressure

bi-  Twice

blast-  Bud, germ

brachi-  Arm; upper arm

brady-  Slow

bucc-  The cheek

burs-  Bag; sac

-c  Relationship to (adj.)

cancel-  Crossbar; lattice

carcin-  Cancer

cardio-  Heart

cata-  Down, according to

cephal-  Head

-cele  Hollow

cerebro-  Brain

chol-  Bile

cholecyst-  Gallbladder

chondr-  Cartilage

-cide  Kill

circum-  
-clast  Smash, break

co-,com-,con-  With, together

contra-  Against, opposite

cost-  Of a rib

crin-  To separate

crypto-  Hidden

cysto-  Bladder, sac

-cyte-, cyto  Cell

de-  Away from

dendr-  A tree, branching

derm-  Skin

desmo-  Band; ligament

di-  Two

dia-  Through, apart, across

diastol-  Stand apart, relax

dis-  Reversal, apart from

diure-  Urine prod., urination

duc-(duct)  Leading, drawing

-dynia  Pain

dys-  Difficult, bad

e-, ef-  Out, away from

ec-  Out from

ecto-  On outer side

ectop-  Displaced

-ectomy  Cut out

-edem  Swell

ejacul-  To throw out

electro-  Electricity

em-,  en -In

-emia  Blood

endo-  Within

endym  A garment

entero-  Intestine

epi-  Upon, on

erg-  Work, power

erythro-  Red

ethm-  A sieve

eu-  Well, good

ex-  Out, away from

exo-  Outside, on outer side

extra-  Outside

fasci-  Bundle

fer-, -ferent  To bear, carrying

folli-  A bag

foram-  A pit

-form  Expressing resemblance

foss-  Ditch, depression

gangli-  A swelling

gastro-  Stomach

gemm-  A bud

-genesis  Produce, origin

germ-  Embryo, sprout

gingiv-  The gums

gli-  Glue

glob-  A ball

gloss-  Tongue

gluco, glucos-  Sugar, sweet

gon(ado)-  A seed

-gram  A drawing

-graph  Instrument that records

gusta-  Taste

gyn-  Female

hem(o)-  Blood

hemi-  Half

hepato-  Liver

hetero-  Different, other

hist-  Tissue

holo-  Whole, entire

homeo-  Same

hormon-  To set into motion

hydr(o-  Water

hyoid-  U-shaped

hyper-  Over, above, excessive

hypo-  Under, below, deficient

-ia, -id  Expressing condition

-iatr  Treat, cure

-im  Not

in-  In, into

-ineum  Discharge

infra-  Below, beneath

inter-  Between

intra-  Within

ischem-  Without blood

-ism  Condition, state of

iso-  Equal, the same

-itis  Inflammation

-ity  Expressing condition

jugu-  The neck

juxta-  Near, next to

kerat(o)-  Cornea or horny tissue

-kin  Move

lacr-  Tears, weeping

lacto-  Milk

lacun-  Space, hollow

lamell-  Leaf, layer

lamin-  Layer

-lemma  Husk, covering

leuko-,(leuco-)  White

-liga  Bind

lip  Fat

-lith  A stone, of stone

-logy  The study of

luc-  Light

lumb-  Loin

lumen-  Light, opening

lun-  The moon

-lysis  Breaking up, dissolving

-lyte  That which is loosed

macro-  Large

mal-  Bad

malaco-  Soft

malle-  Hammer

mast-  Breast

mastic-  Of chewing

maxi-  The most

medull-  Underneath, beneath

mega-  Great

melano-  Black

menin-  A membrane

mero-  A part

meso-  Middle, mid

meta-  Beyond, after, change

metr-  Measure

-metri  The uterus

micro-  Small

mictur-  Urination

mito-  Thread, filament

modul-  Control, measure

mono-  One, single

-morph  Form

moti-  To move

moto-  Movement, motor

multi-  Many, much

mura-  Wall

my-(myo-)  A muscle

myelo-  Marrow, spinal cord

narco-  Numbness

nata-  Birth

natri-  Natrium (Na), sodium

neo-  New

nephro-  Kidney

neuro-  Nerve

-nomic  Of law

noto-  The back

oculo-  Eye

odonto-  Tooth or teeth

-oid  With resemblance to

olfact-  Smell

oligo-  Few, scanty, little

-oma  Tumor

-op-, opsi-  See, sight

ophthalam--  Eye

ortho-  
-ory  Referring to

-ose  Full of

-osis  A condition of

osmo-  Pushing

osteo-  Of bone

oto-  Ear

-ous  Expressing material

papill-  A nipple

para-  Beside, beyond, near

parot-  Beside the ear

pars-  A part

-pathy  Disease

pedunc-  A little foot

-penia  Deficiency

per-  Through, excessive

peri-  Around

permea-  To pass through

-phag  Eat

-phas  Speak, utter

-phil  Like, love

phleb-  Vein

-phobia  Fear

-phragm  A fence, partition

phren-  Of the diaphragm

physis/phy-  Growth, production

plant-  The sole of the foot

-plas  Form, grow

-plegia  Paralyze

pleur-  The side

plex-  A network

pluri-  More, several

pne-  Breathe

pneumo-  Air, gas, or lungs

pod-  Foot

poie-  A making, production

pol-  An axis

poly-  Many, much

pon-  A bridge

post-  After, behind

pre-, pro-  Before, in front of

procto-  Anus, rectum

propri-  Peculiar

propaga-  Reproduce, generate

proprio-  One’s own

pseudo-  False

psycho-  Mind, soul

pteryg-  A wing

pudend-  The female genitalia

pyo-  Pus

ram-  Branch

re-  Back, again, contrary

recept-  A receiver

rect-  Straight

renal-  Of the kidney

reticul-  Net-like

retin-  A network

retro-  Backward, loc. behind

-rrhagia  Burst forth, pour

-rrhea  Flow, discharge

sacchar-  Sugar

sagitt-  An arrow

salt-  To leap or dance

sarco-  Flesh or fleshy

sclero-  Hard

-scope  Examine

semi-  Half

semin-  Related to semen

somato-, -some  Body

sphen-  A wedge

sphin-  To squeeze or strangle

-spire  To breathe

-stasis  Stop, stand still

steno-  Narrow

stimul-  A goad or prod

-stomy  To make an artificial opening

strat-  Forming layers

stria-  To channel

sub-  Under

sulc-  A groove or furrow

super-  Above, upper, excessive

supra-  Above, upon

syn-(sym-)  Together, with

systol-  To stand together, contract

tachy-  Fast, swift

tax-  Arrangement

tegmen-  A cover

telo-  The end

tetan-  Rigid, stretched

thalam-  A chamber

thenar-  The palm of the hand

therm-  Heat

thesis-  A placing, arrangement

thrombo-  A blood clot

thyro-  A shield

-tomy  To cut, incise

-ton  To stretch

-tope  Place

tox-  Poison

trab-  Beam or timber

trans-  Across, through, beyond

tri-  Three

-troph  To nourish

-tropic  Changing, influencing

ure-, -uria  Pertaining to the urine

vas-, vaso-  A vessel

-vect  Carrying, to carry

vene-  Vein

viscer-  Internal organ

viscos-  Sticky, thick

vitr-  Glassy

zyg-  Paired