All of the following statements are true with regard innate immunity EXCEPT:
|A)||These responses are not directed specifically to the infectious agent.|
|B)||These responses are not affected by prior exposure to the agent.|
|C)||These responses are innate or inborn.|
|D)||These responses are operating constantly to prevent the establishment of any infection.|
|E)||All of the above are true with regard to innate immunity.|
Which of the following is NOT an example of a nonspecific defense mechanism?
|E)||flushing action of tears, saliva and urine.|
The granulocytes that are actively phagocytic and the most numerous of the leukocytes circulating in the blood are the ________________
The type of leukocyte that is found in the tissues throughout the body, is actively phagocytic, and constitutes the mononuclear phagocyte system is the
All of the following are true regarding macrophages EXCEPT:
|A)||They are found in most tissues of the body.|
|B)||They can be activated to produce specific enzymes that will degrade the specific molecules or particles that they ingest.|
|C)||To ingest large particles or to fight chronic infections, they can fuse together and form giant cells.|
|D)||Macrophages play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity.|
|E)||Macrophages are derived from neutrophils.|
The primary lymphoid organs are the organs in which the B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes mature. The T lymphocytes mature in what tissue/organ?
Which of the following would be classified as a secondary lymphoid organ/tissue?
2. bone marrow
3. lymph nodes
5. MALT (mucosa associated lymphatic tissue)
Place the following events in the order in which they would occur during the process of phagocytosis. 1. Chemotaxis. 2. Ingestion. 3. Digestion. 4. Attachment.
An enzyme found in our tears, saliva, serum, and mucus that degrades the peptidoglycan of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is called
A protein found in neutrophils, mucus secretions, saliva and other body secretions that binds to iron, thus making it unavailable for microbial growth is called
Which of the following are mechanisms that protect the respiratory system from infection? 1. mucus 2. mucociliary escalator 3. normal flora 4. lysozyme 5. acidic environment
Which of the following substances is produced by the cells in our body and interferes with the multiplication of viruses by stimulating the production of antiviral proteins?
All of the following are ways that a fever is important in our defense against infections EXCEPT:
|A)||It increases the production of T-lymphocytes.|
|B)||It intensifies the effect of interferon.|
|C)||It can inhibit the growth of some microbes.|
|D)||It increases the body's reactions and increases the rate of tissue repair.|
|E)||It denatures the enzymes of bacteria and viruses.|
Which of the following is NOT TRUE with regard to complement?
|A)||It damages plasma membranes of foreign cells.|
|B)||It is involved in the development of inflammation.|
|C)||It can bind to the surface of microbes and promote phagocytosis.|
|D)||It is an immune process that is specific to the invading microbe.|
|E)||It is a cascade pathway.|
Which of the following would be classified as a cytokine? 1. complement 2. interferon 3. interleukins 4. tumor necrosis factor 5. catalase
The movement of phagocytes in the direction of an infection, due to attraction by complement, chemicals released by microorganisms, and the remnants of damaged cell membranes is a process called
Complement and immunoglobulins can coat the outer surface of a microorganism making it easier for attachment and phagocytosis. This enhancement of phagocytosis is called
|E)||membrane attack complexing.|
A group of cytokines released by leukocytes that function to induce fever, signal the release of neutrophils from the bone marrow in large numbers, and stimulate macrophages to release cytokines are called
|B)||colony stimulating factors.|
|C)||tumor necrosis factors.|
All of the following are true regarding inflammation EXCEPT:
|A)||The same sequence of events occurs in response to any injury, whether it be a burn, an infection, or trauma.|
|B)||The signs of inflammation are pain, redness, swelling, heat, and possibly loss of function.|
|C)||Cytokines, histamine, complement and other chemical mediators are released.|
|D)||Monocytes are the first cells to arrive from the bloodstream at the site of inflammation.|
|E)||The purpose of inflammation is to remove foreign invaders and heal the damaged tissue.|
Which of the following cells are important in the process of inflammation? 1. macrophages 2. monocytes 3. basophils/mast cells 4. neutrophils/PMNs 5. megakaryocytes
Antihistamines are used to decrease the inflammatory response. Which cell's function is directly blocked by antihistamine treatments?
Smoking inhibits the action of cilia. This would most likely impair the innate defenses of which body system?
The genetic disorder cystic fibrosis diminishes mucus secretions. What body structures would be most subject to infection as a result of this condition? 1. Lungs 2. Stomach 3. Intestines 4. Skin 5. Eyes
|C)||1, 2, 4.|
|D)||1, 2, 3, 5.|
Being startled sometimes causes neutrophils to leave reserve areas and become elevated in the blood and various body tissues. This is an indication that the reaction to fear or stress causes the release of which of these innate immune response chemicals.
|B)||Colony stimulating factor|
|C)||Tumor necrosis factor alpha|
Medical studies have revealed that cancer cells are not directly responsible for most of the body decay associated when the disease spreads throughout the body. This is most likely due the way the innate immune system over-responds to cancer. Which of the following cytokines was shown by researchers to cause cellular damage attributed to cancer?
|B)||Tumor necrotic factors|
|E)||Colony stimulating factor|