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Multiple Choice Quiz
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1
The utilization of oxygen by metabolic processes is correctly referred to as _____.
A)respiration
B)ventilation
C)external respiration
D)cell respiration
2
Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract?
A)lungs
B)trachea
C)bronchi
D)pharynx
3
The internal nares will open into the _____.
A)trachea
B)nasopharynx
C)oropharynx
D)nasal cavity
4
The olfactory nerves pass through openings in the _____.
A)vomer
B)cribriform plate
C)superior conchae
D)nasal septum
5
Most of the respiratory passage surface is lined with _____.
A)pseudostratified epithelium
B)simple columnar cells
C)stratified squamous cells
D)simple squamous epithelium
6
Which of the following is not a property of the mucous lining of the respiratory tract?
A)warms incoming air
B)contains microvilli
C)contains cilia
D)cleanses particles
7
Which of the following does not contain a sinus?
A)frontal bone
B)ethmoid
C)zygomatic bone
D)sphenoid bone
8
What is the anatomical term for the throat?
A)larynx
B)pharynx
C)trachea
D)esophagus
9
Where are the palatine tonsils located?
A)oropharynx
B)nasopharynx
C)laryngopharynx
D)nasal cavity proper
10
The epiglottis is part of the _____ and covers the glottis.
A)trachea
B)oropharynx
C)larynx
D)laryngopharynx
11
The true vocal cords move because they are attached to the ______ cartilage.
A)thyroid
B)cricoid
C)corniculate
D)arytenoid
12
C-shaped pieces of cartilage are found within the _____.
A)trachea
B)bronchioles
C)larynx
D)pharynx
13
The carina separates the _____ from each other.
A)lungs
B)secondary bronchi
C)primary bronchi
D)trachea and bronchi
14
There are _____ secondary bronchi?
A)2
B)4
C)5
D)6
15
The bronchioles enter the _____ of the lungs.
A)carina
B)hilus
C)lobules
D)alveoli
16
The functional gas exchanging units are termed _____.
A)lobules
B)lobar areas
C)alveoli
D)bronchioles
17
The relative amount of smooth muscle is highest in the _____.
A)primary bronchi
B)bronchioles
C)trachea
D)secondary bronchi
18
The tissue lining the alveoli is _____ epithelium.
A)pseudostratified columnar
B)cuboidal
C)simple squamous
D)stratified squamous
19
How many alveoli are there in an average adult lung?
A)100,000
B)1 million
C)300,000,000
D)50,000
20
Gas is exchanged in the alveoli by a process of _____.
A)simple diffusion
B)active transport
C)facilitated diffusion
D)filtration
21
What is the entrance into the lungs called?
A)carina
B)apex
C)lobule
D)hilus
22
The pleural cavity is the space between the lung and _____.
A)visceral pleural
B)thoracic wall
C)parietal pleura
D)mediastinum
23
The main function of the pleural membranes is to _____.
A)maintain pressure
B)increase thoracic pressure
C)remove foreign particles
D)reduce friction
24
Atmospheric pressure is around _____ mmHg.
A)760
B)500
C)120
D)850
25
The movement of air within the respiratory system is correctly referred to as _____.
A)breathing
B)inhalation
C)exhalation
D)ventilation
26
What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation?
A)surface tension
B)cartilage
C)phospholipids
D)pressure
27
The main force causing the exhalation of air is the _____.
A)contraction of diaphragm
B)elastic recoil
C)diaphragm relaxation
D)intercostal muscles
28
During inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure reaches _____.
A)760 mmHg
B)758 mmHg
C)763 mmHg
D)730 mmHg
29
A pneumothorax occurs when the thoracic pleural pressure reaches around _____ mmHg.
A)780
B)760
C)755
D)0
30
The _____ muscle can cause a forced exhalation.
A)diaphragm
B)pectoralis major
C)internal intercostal
D)external intercostal
31
The amount of air that enters the lungs during normal, restful breathing is called the _____.
A)vital capacity
B)tidal volume
C)total lung capacity
D)expiratory reserve volume
32
The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the _____.
A)total lung capacity
B)expiratory reserve volume
C)functional residual capacity
D)residual volume
33
Which of these is the sum of the other three?
A)tidal volume
B)expiratory reserve
C)vital capacity
D)inspiratory reserve
34
The total amount of air that cannot be exchanged either because of disease or because it cannot reach an exchange site is termed the _____.
A)anatomical dead space
B)physiologic dead space
C)residual volume
D)functional reserve capacity
35
The condition characterized by alveolar fibrosis with difficulty exhaling is _____.
A)bronchial asthma
B)bronchogenic carcinoma
C)emphysema
D)poliomyelitis
36
The condition characterized by difficulty breathing due to an allergic response is _____.
A)pulmonary cancer
B)bronchial asthma
C)tuberculosis
D)atelectasis
37
Non-respiratory movements are most easily triggered by stimuli in which of these areas?
A)larynx
B)alveoli
C)distal bronchioles
D)alveolar ducts
38
Which reflex involves a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm?
A)sneeze
B)hiccup
C)cough
D)yawn
39
Which reflex is caused by local alveolar decreases in oxygen content?
A)cough
B)laugh
C)hiccup
D)yawn
40
Breathing is mainly controlled by the _____.
A)local alveoli
B)medulla oblongata
C)pons
D)pneumotaxic center
41
Which area exerts its effect on the primary breathing control areas?
A)pneumotaxic area of pons
B)dorsal respiratory group
C)ventral respiratory group
D)brain stem rhythmicity centers
42
Which of the following factors favors an increase in breathing rate?
A)increased blood oxygen
B)increased blood carbon dioxide
C)increased pH
D)decreased acidity
43
Which of the following does not stimulate the medullary breathing center chemosensitive neurons?
A)low blood pH
B)low blood oxygen
C)high blood carbon dioxide
D)high spinal fluid acidity
44
Which of these is not a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
A)emphysema
B)asthma
C)lung cancer
D)bronchitis
45
Which mechanism prevents over-inflation of the lungs?
A)surfactant secretion
B)blood pH levels
C)the chemoreceptor reflexes
D)Hering-Breuer reflex
46
Which is the most common cause of hyperventilation?
A)low pH
B)high pH
C)anxiety
D)high carbon dioxide
47
Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
A)oxygen
B)carbon dioxide
C)argon
D)nitrogen
48
What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen?
A)160 mm Hg
B)21%
C)760 mm Hg
D)0.3 mm Hg
49
What is the normal PCO2 of the capillary blood?
A)0.05 mm Hg
B)45 mm Hg
C)40 mm Hg
D)104 mmHg
50
What is the normal PO2 of the alveolar air?
A)40 mm Hg
B)45 mm Hg
C)104 mm Hg
D)50 mm Hg
51
Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found?
A)in the air
B)in the alveoli
C)the arteries entering the lung
D)the veins leaving the lung
52
Which condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli?
A)ARDS
B)tuberculosis
C)pneumonia
D)atelectasis
53
Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the _____.
A)plasma
B)hemoglobin
C)iron
D)capillaries
54
At high PO2 levels, where is most oxygen located?
A)oxyhemoglobin
B)hemoglobin
C)plasma
D)free heme
55
Which of the following factors favors a release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
A)decreased CO2
B)decreased pH
C)lower blood temperature
D)increased pH
56
Which of these has the highest affinity for hemoglobin?
A)CO2
B)nitrogen
C)O2
D)CO
57
Where is most carbon dioxide transported?
A)in the plasma
B)as carbaminohemoglobin
C)as bicarbonate
D)on the heme
58
The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is _____.
A)pressure
B)tissue production
C)carbonic anhydrase
D)hemoglobin affinity







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