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Multiple Choice Quiz
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1
The outermost covering of the kidney is the _____.
A)cortex
B)medulla
C)pelvis
D)capsule
2
The kidneys are located in the _____ space.
A)pelvic cavity
B)peritoneal cavity
C)abdominal
D)retroperitoneal
3
The entrance into the kidney is called the _____.
A)sinus
B)renal column
C)hilum
D)pyramid
4
Which structure is the first to collect the urine?
A)pelvis
B)calyx
C)ureter
D)urethra
5
Each minor calyx receives urine from the _____.
A)renal papillae
B)pelvis
C)ureter
D)columns
6
The renal pyramids are located within the _____.
A)column
B)cortex
C)medulla
D)pelvis
7
The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by _____.
A)parallel blood vessels
B)microtubules
C)connective tissue
D)nerve fibers
8
What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
A)alveolus
B)renal pyramid
C)renal pelvis
D)nephron
9
The kidney secretes _____ for the purpose of stimulating bone marrow activity.
A)renin
B)aldosterone
C)erythropoietin
D)somatomedin
10
The kidney secretes _____, which is an enzyme-hormone that raises blood pressure.
A)aldosterone
B)renin
C)angiotensinogen
D)angiotensin II
11
What is the function of the renal system?
A)maintain blood pH
B)regulate blood pressure
C)control blood concentration
D)all of these
12
How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?
A)10%
B)25%
C)50%
D)65%
13
Which blood vessel delivers blood to the cortex?
A)interlobular artery
B)arcuate artery
C)interlobar artery
D)efferent arteriole
14
The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and _____.
A)proximal convoluted tubule
B)Bowman's capsule
C)loop of Henle
D)distal convoluted tubule
15
Which section of the nephron is after the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
A)descending limb of the loop
B)proximal convoluted tubule
C)distal convoluted tubule
D)collecting duct
16
The last part of a nephron is the _____.
A)collecting duct
B)renal papilla
C)distal convoluted tubule
D)glomerulus
17
Which area actually secretes renin into the blood?
A)macula densa
B)juxtaglomerular apparatus
C)juxtaglomerular cells
D)cortical nephron
18
Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the nephron?
A)efferent arteriole
B)vasa recta
C)peritubular capillary
D)interlobular vein
19
Which blood vessels surround the loops of Henle?
A)vasa recta
B)peritubular capillaries
C)interlobular arteries
D)efferent arterioles
20
Which process is most affected by blood pressure?
A)tubular secretion
B)tubular reabsorption
C)glomerular filtration
D)loop of Henle diffusion
21
Which of the following are not found in the glomerular filtrate?
A)glucose
B)protein
C)uric acid
D)creatinine
22
Which muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys?
A)urea
B)uric acid
C)creatine
D)creatinine
23
Which of these has the highest concentration in the urine?
A)glucose
B)sodium
C)uric acid
D)phosphate
24
Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium?
A)chloride
B)potassium
C)calcium
D)magnesium
25
What is the average glomerular filtration rate?
A)10L per day
B)180L per day
C)1,500 ml per day
D)1 ml per minute
26
Which of the following is usually not found in the urine?
A)magnesium
B)urea
C)uric acid
D)glucose
27
How much urine is formed in 24 hours?
A)12 liters
B)100 ml
C)1.5L
D)3,000cc
28
Renin acts on _____ to convert it to angiotensin I.
A)angiotensin II
B)angiotensinogen
C)ACE
D)aldosterone
29
The targets of angiotensin II are blood vessels and _____.
A)nerves
B)adrenal cortex
C)adrenal medulla
D)kidney nephron
30
Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubules into the _____.
A)loop of Henle
B)peritubular capillaries
C)renal corpuscle
D)renal pyramid
31
Most tubular reabsorption occurs at the _____.
A)loop of Henle
B)distal convoluted tubule
C)proximal convoluted tubule
D)glomerulus
32
Where are most microvilli found?
A)loop of Henle
B)distal convoluted tubule
C)loop of Henle
D)proximal convoluted tubule
33
Which of the following occurred by active transport?
A)albumin in the urine
B)creatine in the urine
C)reabsorption of water at the proximal tubule
D)reabsorption of amino acids
34
Which of these does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism?
A)creatine
B)ascorbic acid
C)sodium
D)citric acid
35
The action of aldosterone is to increase _____.
A)sodium elimination
B)sodium reabsorption
C)potassium reabsorption
D)chloride excretion
36
How much sodium is actively reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron?
A)10%
B)1%
C)70%
D)99%
37
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the _____.
A)proximal convoluted tubule
B)loop of Henle
C)distal convoluted tubule
D)collecting ducts
38
The fluid in the descending limb of the loop of Henle is _____ relative to the capillaries.
A)isotonic
B)weakly hypotonic
C)strongly hypotonic
D)hypertonic
39
The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to _____.
A)increase the concentration of NaCl
B)decrease the concentration of NaCl
C)change the blood levels of potassium
D)conserve potassium
40
What affect does ADH have on urine output?
A)minimal
B)increases
C)decreases
D)maintains
41
Where does ADH have its greatest effect?
A)loop of Henle
B)proximal convoluted tubule
C)distal convoluted tubule
D)glomerulus
42
Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of _____ in the blood.
A)protein
B)creatinine
C)urea
D)uric acid
43
Uric acid results from _____ metabolism.
A)protein
B)carbohydrate
C)purine
D)pyrimidine
44
Renal secretion of a compound usually occurs from the _____ into the distal convoluted tubule.
A)loop of Henle
B)glomerulus
C)vasa recta
D)peritubular capillaries
45
Which of these is not usually secreted by the kidneys?
A)creatine
B)creatinine
C)H+
D)penicillin
46
The compound used to assess the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is _____.
A)creatinine
B)inulin
C)para-aminohippuric acid
D)creatine
47
Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids?
A)urea
B)uric acid
C)glycine
D)ketone
48
Vigorous exercise could release high amounts of _____ into the urine.
A)glucose
B)uric acid
C)albumin
D)ascorbic acid
49
What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder?
A)gravity
B)hydrostatic pressure
C)peristalsis
D)osmotic pressure
50
Renal calculi are usually comprised of the following except which one?
A)calcium oxalate
B)cholesterol
C)uric acid
D)magnesium phosphate
51
The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of _____.
A)smooth muscle
B)squamous epithelium
C)transitional epithelium
D)simple columnar epithelium
52
Which of these is under voluntary control?
A)urethra
B)detrusor muscle
C)internal sphincter
D)external sphincter
53
The micturition reflex is centered in the _____.
A)medulla
B)sacral cord
C)hypothalamus
D)lumbar cord







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