Choose the statement that does not correctly characterize the kidneys.
|A)||The kidneys are positioned retroperitoneally.|
|B)||The right kidney is usually 1.5 to 2 centimeters higher than the left one.|
|C)||The kidney is padded by a layer of fat.|
|D)||Inside the kidney there is a hollow chamber called the renal sinus.|
The granular appearance of the renal cortex is due to ________________.
|A)||the positioning of blood vessels within this area|
|B)||polycystic kidney disease|
|C)||the random distribution of nephrons in this area|
|D)||the positioning of the renal columns|
Which of these is not a function of the kidneys?
|A)||The kidneys deactivate vitamin D and stimulate the activity of osteoclasts.|
|B)||The kidneys help control the rate of red blood cell production.|
|C)||The kidneys help to regulate blood pressure.|
|D)||The kidneys regulate the composition, volume, and pH of body fluids.|
The final branches of the interlobular arteries give rise to the _________________ that carry blood to the nephrons.
Choose the one trait that does not characterize the structure of a nephron.
|A)||There are two coiled portions of the renal tubule.|
|B)||The glomerular capsule contains podocytes and slit pores.|
|C)||Blood that will be filtered flows into the glomerular capsule.|
|D)||Several nephron tubules merge to form a collecting duct.|
The concentrations of substances in the plasma, in the glomerular filtrate, and in urine differ in what way?
|A)||Plasma contains the most water, glomerular filtrate contains less water, and urine contains the least.|
|B)||Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually identical, but urine contains proportionately more waste products.|
|C)||Plasma differs from glomerular filtrate and urine, which have virtually identical concentrations of substances.|
|D)||All three have the same concentrations of nutrients and waste materials, but differ in the amount of proteinaceous material they contain.|
Which force favors filtration?
|A)||glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure|
|B)||capsular hydrostatic pressure|
|C)||glomerular capillary osmotic pressure|
|D)||capsular osmotic pressure|
Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate?
|B)||osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate|
|C)||plasma osmotic pressure|
|D)||concentration of leukocytes in the blood|
Juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete _______________ when _______________.
|A)||angiotensin-converting enzyme; blood pressure increases|
|B)||potassium; chloride concentration declines|
|C)||renin; blood pressure drops|
|D)||atrial natriuretic peptide; blood volume drops|
Tubular reabsorption is responsible for retaining nutrients the body requires. Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the _______________ where microvilli, and their numerous carrier proteins, increase the surface area available for reabsorption.
|A)||distal convoluted tubule|
|B)||proximal convoluted tubule|
Most small proteins are reabsorbed by _______________.
Within the renal tubule, two hormones play a role in determining the final volume and sodium concentration of the urine. The hormone _______________ regulates sodium reabsorption, while ________________ regulates water reabsorption.
|A)||aldosterone; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)|
|B)||cortisol; atrial natriuretic peptide|
|C)||renin; angiotensin II|
|D)||antidiuretic hormone (ADH); epinephrine|
Why is the plant compound known as inulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance?
|A)||Inulin tastes good, so patients are more apt to be cooperative.|
|B)||Inulin is neither reabsorbed or actively secreted into the filtrate.|
|C)||Inulin colors the filtrate and thus facilitates scanning of the kidney.|
|D)||Inulin is readily available and inexpensive, and thus makes measuring renal clearance fairly simple.|
Peristaltic muscular contractions are important for conveying urine through the excretory system, much like peristalsis in the digestive tract. Peristalsis of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder is controlled by ______________.
|A)||conscious control of the skeletal muscle|
|B)||sympathetic nervous impulses|
|C)||parasympathetic nervous impulses|
|D)||impulses from the cerebral cortex|
In males as well as in females, the external urethral sphincter is made up of skeletal muscle, and is thus under voluntary control. Where is the external urethral sphincter located in males?
|A)||within the urogenital diaphragm|
|B)||within the penile urethra|
|C)||at the external urethral orifice|
|D)||within the prostatic urethra|
Which structure is last in the sequence of urine flow?
The outermost structure of a kidney is the _____.
What is the main factor that causes urine to enter the urinary bladder?
What is the main factor that promotes bladder infections in the female?
|A)||length of urethra|
|B)||presence of bacteria in rectum|
Which system functions in the excretion of soluble nitrogenous wastes?
The pyramids are areas located within the _____ of the kidney.
The ureter directly receives urine from the _____ of the kidney.
The structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the _____.
|A)||proximal convoluted tubule|
|B)||distal convoluted tubule|
|D)||loop of Henle|
Which vessel directs blood into the glomerulus?
In which area can the term urine be correctly used?
|D)||loop of Henle|
Where does most selective reabsorption occur?
|A)||loop of Henle|
|C)||distal convoluted tubule|
|D)||proximal convoluted tubule|