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Multiple Choice Quiz
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Please answer all questions

1
Where is most water found in the body?
A)blood plasma
B)whole blood
C)tissue spaces
D)in cells
2
Which of these is a transcellular fluid?
A)plasma
B)lymph
C)interstitial
D)synovial
3
Which of these is not a transcellular fluid?
A)interstitial fluid
B)vitreous humor
C)peritoneal fluid
D)mucus
4
Which of these is relatively high in extracellular fluids?
A)potassium
B)calcium
C)phosphate
D)sodium
5
What is the main force that causes water to move among the various fluid compartments?
A)osmosis
B)filtration
C)hydrostatic pressure
D)dialysis
6
What is the main force that causes fluid to leave the plasma compartment?
A)osmosis
B)hydrostatic pressure
C)dialysis
D)filtration
7
How is the excess tissue fluid mainly returned to the blood?
A)hydrostatic forces
B)through the capillaries
C)lymphatic vessels
D)tissue osmosis
8
About _____% of the total daily intake of water is derived from internal cell metabolism.
A)33
B)10
C)80
D)60
9
What is the greatest regulator of water intake?
A)renal function
B)gastrointestinal system
C)adequate diet
D)hypothalamus
10
As total body water decreases, the _____ of the extracellular fluid increases.
A)amount of sodium
B)osmotic pressure
C)hydrostatic pressure
D)protein level
11
The greatest amount of body water is lost through _____.
A)sweating
B)defecation
C)urine
D)breathing
12
The main factor that causes the kidney to conserve water is _____.
A)ADH
B)osmosis
C)renin production
D)plasma filtration pressure
13
ADH is secreted from the _____.
A)hypothalamus
B)posterior pituitary
C)anterior pituitary
D)kidney
14
Which of the following would have a diuretic effect?
A)eating salty pretzels
B)drinking alcohol
C)sleeping
D)most drugs
15
ADH has a direct effect on _____.
A)blood pressure
B)water reabsorption
C)blood concentration
D)all of these
16
Excessive vomiting usually results in the phenomenon of _____.
A)water intoxication
B)dehydration
C)edema
D)hypoproteinemia
17
The symptoms of dehydration result from loss of _____ water.
A)intracellular
B)extracellular
C)blood
D)transcellular
18
The effects of water intoxication are usually related to _____.
A)blood pressure
B)hypoproteinemia
C)low sodium
D)high potassium
19
Which of the following favor the development of edema?
A)hypoproteinemia
B)decreased venous pressure
C)decreased capillary permeability
D)lymphatic flow
20
Which of these is not a usual cause of hypoproteinemia?
A)glomerulonephritis
B)poor diet
C)diuresis
D)liver disease
21
What can be a direct cause of ascites?
A)hypertension
B)hepatic disease
C)glomerulonephritis
D)renal failure
22
What causes the edema seen in inflammations?
A)hyperproteinemia
B)histamine
C)hypertension
D)cell damage
23
Which of the following is not true in Addison's disease?
A)sodium decreases
B)potassium decreases
C)adrenal cortex failure
D)low aldosterone
24
Where are most electrolytes normally lost?
A)feces
B)sweating
C)urine
D)respiration
25
What is the most abundant extracellular cation?
A)potassium
B)Mg2+
C)chloride
D)sodium
26
Which factor accounts for the ability of the body to conserve high levels of sodium?
A)blood pressure
B)aldosterone
C)kidney function
D)adequate diet
27
Which ion is usually exchanged for sodium absorption?
A)Cl-
B)bicarbonate
C)K+
D)H+
28
Which cells are most sensitive to electrolyte changes?
A)osteoblasts
B)epithelial
C)leukocytes
D)neurons
29
Which of these is not an effect of parathyroid hormone?
A)osteoclast stimulation
B)increase in blood Ca2+
C)increase in renal elimination
D)increase in intestinal absorption
30
Which ion is directly related to calcium homeostasis?
A)Mg2+
B)sodium
C)phosphate
D)chloride
31
Hyperparathyroidism usually causes an increase in _____.
A)potassium
B)calcium
C)phosphate
D)sodium
32
Which of the following does not become involved with maintaining blood calcium balance?
A)skeletal muscle
B)bone
C)kidneys
D)intestine
33
Which of the following is not related to hypocalcemia?
A)vitamin D deficiency
B)muscle weakness
C)tetany
D)cardiac arrhythmia
34
Which is the most abundant extracellular ion?
A)phosphate
B)bicarbonate
C)chloride
D)potassium
35
What is the most important ion, which affects all of the functions of the others?
A)H+
B)Na+
C)K+
D)phosphate
36
Which of the following will not produce H+ ions?
A)respiration of glucose
B)oxidation of fatty acids
C)synthesis of phosphoproteins
D)oxidation of sulfur amino acids
37
Which of these is not associated with acidity?
A)H3PO4
B)lactic
C)ketone
D)glucose
38
What is a likely cause of hypernatremia?
A)high salt in the diet
B)kidney failure
C)diabetes insipidus
D)vomiting
39
Hypokalemia could result from all of these except which one?
A)vomiting
B)Addison's disease
C)Cushing's disease
D)renal failure
40
Which of the following acts as a base in body fluids?
A)H+
B)HCl
C)H2CO3
D)HCO3-
41
Which of the following does not play a significant role in maintaining acid-base balance?
A)blood buffers
B)stomach
C)kidney
D)respiration
42
Which of the following could act as a buffer?
A)bicarbonate ion
B)H2PO4
C)albumin
D)carbonic acid
43
The purpose of a buffer system is to _____.
A)prevent pH changes
B)increase acidity
C)decrease pH
D)maintain a pH range
44
In the bicarbonate buffer system, _____ reacts with bases.
A)carbon dioxide
B)carbonic acid
C)bicarbonate ion
D)water
45
When a strong base reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system, ______ is formed from the base.
A)water
B)carbon dioxide
C)bicarbonate ion
D)carbonic acid
46
When an acid reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system, ______ is formed as an end product.
A)NaCl
B)water
C)carbonic acid
D)bicarbonate ion
47
What happens to HCl in the phosphate buffer reaction?
A)ionizes
B)forms water
C)forms H2PO4
D)forms a weak acid and salt
48
What reacts with excess acids in protein buffers?
A)carboxyl group
B)amino group
C)CO2
D)NH3+
49
What reacts with the excess bases in protein buffers?
A)NH2
B)carbon dioxide
C)NH3+
D)carboxyl group
50
What buffers the addition of hydrogen in blood cells following the uptake of carbon dioxide?
A)albumin
B)bicarbonate
C)hemoglobin
D)phosphate
51
Which factor greatly increases the reaction between carbon dioxide and water?
A)carbonic anhydrase
B)concentration of carbon dioxide
C)concentration of bicarbonate
D)pH of hemoglobin
52
Which of the following is an effect of acidosis?
A)increased diuresis
B)decreased diuresis
C)mental confusion
D)seizures
53
Which blood parameter is directly affected by breathing?
A)blood pH
B)carbon dioxide
C)bicarbonate levels
D)buffer chemicals
54
During periods of acidosis, the kidney will secrete _____ into the urine.
A)carbon dioxide
B)K+
C)H2PO4
D)HPO4
55
In an attempt to remove acid from the blood, the kidneys will secrete _____ into the urine compartment.
A)ammonia
B)NH4+
C)chloride
D)monohydrogen phosphate
56
Which mechanism requires the most time to regulate pH?
A)bicarbonate buffer
B)phosphate buffer
C)respiration
D)renal function
57
Which condition is a generalized accumulation of body edematous tissues?
A)azotemia
B)anuria
C)acetonemia
D)anasarca
58
What is the normal pH of the blood?
A)7.40-7.50
B)7.35-7.45
C)6.8-7.9
D)7.0-8.0
59
What is the pH range compatible with life?
A)7.35-7.45
B)7.0-9.0
C)6.8-8.0
D)5-9
60
Hyperventilation from anxiety usually causes _____.
A)respiratory acidosis
B)metabolic acidosis
C)respiratory alkalosis
D)metabolic alkalosis
61
Lung cancer usually causes the tendency towards _____.
A)metabolic acidosis
B)metabolic alkalosis
C)respiratory acidosis
D)respiratory alkalosis







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