Cerebrospinal fluid, fluid within the eyes, joints, and body cavities, and fluid secretions of exocrine glands are all classified specifically as ______________ fluid.
|D)||None of the above|
What are the two major factors that regulate the movement of water and electrolytes from one fluid compartment to the next?
|A)||hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure|
|B)||sodium concentration and osmotic pressure|
|C)||hydrostatic pressure and potassium concentration|
|D)||concentration of all electrolytes combined and water pressure|
What trigger signals the brain to increase the output of ADH for water conservation?
|A)||thickened saliva signals the sympathetic nervous system|
|B)||osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the increase in osmotic pressure of body fluids and signal the posterior pituitary to release ADH|
|C)||chemoreceptors in the renal tubule sense the increased viscosity of renal filtrate and signal the hypothalamus which, in turn, signals the posterior pituitary|
|D)||the juxtaglomerular apparatus senses the greater osmotic pressure in the blood and triggers the release of ADH|
How does alcohol function as a diuretic?
|A)||Alcohol dilutes the blood and thus enables increased urine output.|
|B)||Alcohol receptors in the liver sense its presence and trigger a biochemical pathway that increases urine output to rid the body of alcohol.|
|C)||Alcohol inhibits the release of ADH and thus urine output is increased.|
|D)||Alcohol prevents the distal convoluted tubule from reabsorbing water from the filtrate.|
A so-called "salt craving" is primarily the result of _________________.
|A)||a learned behavior|
|B)||a genetic disease|
|D)||a severe electrolyte deficiency|
_______________ ions account for nearly 90% of the positively charged ions found in extracellular fluid.
The hormone aldosterone regulates the concentrations of _____________ and ______________ in the body.
|A)||potassium ions; sodium ions|
|B)||calcium ions; phosphate ions|
|C)||calcium ions; chloride ions|
|D)||phosphate ions; sulfate ions|
Edema can be caused by all of these factors except ________________.
|A)||an increase in the plasma protein concentration|
|B)||obstruction of lymphatic vessels|
|C)||increased capillary permeability because of inflammation|
|D)||increased venous pressure|
The imbalance known as ____________ can be caused by certain diuretic medications.
Which of the following does not occur as a result of a shift in the acid- base balance of the body?
|A)||an alteration in the rate of enzyme-controlled metabolic reactions|
|B)||an increase in metabolic efficiency within the cells|
|C)||a shift in the distribution of other ions|
|D)||a modification in hormone actions|
Choose the factor that is not a major metabolic source of hydrogen ions in the body.
|A)||aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose|
|B)||oxidation of amino acids that contain sulfur|
|C)||hydrolysis of phosphoproteins|
|D)||dehydration synthesis of nucleic acids|
The three most important buffer systems in body fluids include the bicarbonate buffer system, the ______________ buffer system, and the protein buffer system.
How is it possible for the rate and depth of breathing to affect hydrogen ion concentrations in body fluids?
|A)||During increased air exchange, more oxygen is exchanged with body cells, binding hydrogen ions.|
|B)||During increased air exchange, more carbon dioxide is given off, returning hydrogen ion concentrations to normal.|
|C)||During increased respiration over the long term, more hemoglobin is produced, thus increasing the buffering of the blood|
|D)||The rate and depth of breathing does not alter hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids.|
Which of these is considered a secondary defense against changes in pH?
|A)||renal excretion of hydrogen ions|
|B)||the bicarbonate buffer system|
|C)||the phosphate buffer system|
|D)||the protein buffer system|
The accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is a condition known as ________________.
Which body compartment contains the greatest relative amount of water?
_____is the most common extracellular cation, while _____ is the most abundant intracellular cation.
Which of these values would be the smallest?
|C)||water in food|
|D)||water in beverages|
Which of these conditions leads to a severe, life- threatening water loss?
|A)||diabetes mellitus, type 1|
|B)||diabetes mellitus, type 2|
An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid is termed ______.
The most serious consequence of potassium imbalances is _____.
What is the normal pH of the blood?
Under normal circumstances, _________ is probably the greatest source of H+.
|C)||oxidation of fatty acids|
What is the most significant inorganic plasma buffer?
What is the most effective intracellular inorganic buffer?
Which of the following is the most toxic?
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an example of which imbalance?
Which of the following is not likely to cause acidosis?
What is the term for a condition of widespread edema?
Which of these is not a consequence of vomiting?