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Multiple Choice Quiz
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Please answer all questions

1
Epithelial linings of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, and urethra all form from the _______________layer of the gastrula.
A)ectoderm
B)mesoderm
C)endoderm
D)chorionic villi
2
The portion of the placenta contributed by the embryo is the ______________.
A)chorion
B)allantois
C)amnion
D)yolk sac
3
Within which extraembryonic membrane are blood cells formed in the early stages of development?
A)chorion
B)allantois
C)amnion
D)yolk sac
4
Which of these substances is/are not teratogenic?
A)viruses
B)certain drugs
C)most water-soluble vitamins
D)certain fat-soluble vitamins
5
What is the major distinguishing factor that separates the embryonic stage from the fetal stage?
A)All major organ systems form during the embryonic stage; the fetal stage consists mainly of rapid growth.
B)The brain forms late in the fetal stage; all other organ systems form earlier.
C)The skeletal system is laid down during the fetal stage, otherwise organ systems form during the embryonic stage.
D)The major event of the embryonic stage is implantation in the uterus; all development occurs during the fetal stage.
6
Of every 100 secondary oocytes that are exposed to sperm, how many infants are actually born live?
A)about 95
B)around 75
C)approximately 50
D)about 31
7
Which vessel transports blood rich in oxygen and nutrients to the fetus?
A)ductus venosus
B)umbilical vein
C)umbilical artery
D)ductus arteriosus
8
Within the fetus, much of the circulating blood bypasses the lungs and flows through the ______________.
A)ductus venosus
B)umbilical vein
C)umbilical artery
D)ductus arteriosus
9
The period immediately after birth to four weeks of age is called the _______________ period.
A)senescent
B)adolescent
C)neonatal
D)infancy
10
Uterine contractions appear to indirectly stimulate the release of ____________ in the newborn infant.
A)surfactant
B)cortisol
C)growth hormone
D)pain neurotransmitters
11
Many changes occur in the newborn infant as it adapts to a life apart from its mother. What happens to the umbilical vein?
A)It continues to transport blood from the navel to the vena cava.
B)It closes off to become the ligamentum teres.
C)It closes off to become the superior vesical artery.
D)It becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.
12
What is the biological definition of human adulthood?
A)when puberty is reached
B)age 18
C)adolescence to old age
D)age 21
13
At what age do age-related degenerative changes begin in most adults?
A)age 30
B)age 40
C)age 60
D)age 70
14
Aging appears to result from each of these causes except _______________.
A)genetics
B)apoptosis
C)accumulation of free-radicals
D)adequate nutrition and exercise
15
What is a major cause of death in less-developed countries?
A)cancer
B)heart disease
C)infections
D)automobile accidents
16
In which menstrual cycle phase does implantation occur?
A)menses
B)ovulation
C)proliferative
D)secretory
17
What normally prevents the expulsion of an embryo by a menstrual flow?
A)the enzymes around the embryo
B)HCG
C)the thickness of the endometrium
D)FSH
18
The structure which implants in the endometrium is correctly termed a(n) _____.
A)embryo
B)blastocyst
C)morula
D)zygote
19
When can the term fetus be correctly used?
A)at three weeks
B)when body systems have been established
C)after the neural tube forms
20
Which extraembryonic membrane encloses the embryo in a fluid filled cavity?
A)allantois
B)yolk sac
C)chorion
D)amnion
21
What is the origin of red blood cells?
A)yolk sac
B)chorion
C)fetal bone marrow
D)amnion
22
Which membrane plays the greatest role in nutrient and wastes exchanges?
A)amnion
B)chorion
C)allantois
D)yolk sac
23
What is the most significant source of estrogens in an eight month fetus?
A)ovarian follicles
B)pituitary
C)corpus luteum
D)placenta
24
Which hormone prevents a second pregnancy during gestation?
A)FSH
B)LH
C)progesterone
D)HCG
25
In which process do the cells become progressively smaller?
A)differentiation
B)cleavage
C)growth
D)morphogenesis
26
Which is the first system to become visibly most completely differentiated?
A)circulatory
B)excretory
C)nervous
D)integumentary
27
When is a developing individual most susceptible to genetic birth defects from smoking?
A)last trimester
B)third to sixth month
C)first trimester
D)at birth
28
What is not a typical congenital rubella defect?
A)hearing loss
B)cataracts
C)liver disease
D)heart defects
29
When is it first possible to distinguish the sex of a fetus?
A)one month
B)second month
C)third month
D)fourth month
30
When does bone start to replace cartilage?
A)fifth week
B)second month
C)third month
D)fourth month
31
Which structure diverts some blood away from the lungs and into the systemic circulation?
A)fossa ovalis
B)ductus arteriosus
C)ductus venosus
D)ligamentum arteriosum







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