Which statement is not true about catabolic processes?
|A)||They break down larger molecules into smaller ones.|
|B)||They decompose carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.|
|C)||Water molecules separate bonds, resulting in smaller molecules.|
|D)||Dehydration synthesis is involved in catabolic processes.|
Enzymes function in chemical reactions to ____________________.
|A)||lower the energy of activation needed to start the reaction|
|B)||act as substrate molecules|
|C)||prevent the development of metabolic pathways|
|D)||keep reactants from interacting|
Most of the readily available energy stored in ATP is stored during the ________________.
|A)||decomposition of ATP to ADP|
|B)||phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP|
|C)||phosphorylation of AMP to ADP|
|D)||manufacture of adenosine|
The first several steps of glycolysis are considered the energy-investment steps because ______________.
|A)||energy within glucose is expended to start the pathway|
|B)||energy is stored in the form of ATP and expended later|
|C)||energy from ATP is transferred to intermediates along the pathway to drive the reactions|
|D)||metabolic pathways can be interconnected, and glucose could enter more than one pathway|
The steps of glycolysis occur in the ________________, the transition reaction occurs in the _________________, and the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) is carried out in the _________________ of the cell.
|A)||cytosol; mitochondrion; mitochondrion|
|B)||cytosol; cytosol; mitochondrion|
|C)||liver; muscle; stored fat reserves|
|D)||cytosol; ribosome; mitochondrion|
The acetyl group is transported to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) by what carrier?
|A)||mitochondrial inner membrane|
During glycolysis, one molecule of glucose is broken down to ______ molecules of pyruvic acid, _______ hydrogen atoms are released, and there is a net gain of _______ ATP molecules.
|A)||2; 4; 2|
|B)||4; 2; 4|
|C)||4; 8; 32|
|D)||1; 4; 32|
What occurs during the citric acid cycle?
|A)||Glucose is generated.|
|B)||Electrons are passed along cytochromes.|
|C)||Carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are released, and two molecules of ATP form.|
|D)||Oxaloacetic acid is regenerated from coenzyme A.|
The purpose of the hydrogen carriers, NADH and FADH2, is to drive ________.
|C)||beta oxidation in the mitochondria|
|D)||reduction of cytochrome oxidase|
Metabolic pathways are regulated by a(n) ____________ enzyme, which is also often the first enzyme in a series.
A genetic mutation refers to _________________.
|A)||a missing chromosome only|
|B)||a missing or altered nucleotide base or a missing gene|
|C)||an effect that is deleterious only|
|D)||an effect that is beneficial, at least most of the time|
The process of copying DNA to be used in protein synthesis is called __________ and occurs ______________.
|A)||translation; with ribosomes|
|B)||complementary pairing; in the cytoplasm|
|C)||DNA replication; with codons and anticodons|
|D)||transcription; in the nucleus|
Which of the following is an example of a catabolic reaction?
|A)||synthesis of cholesterol|
|B)||production of ketones|
|C)||hydrolysis of proteins|
|D)||dehydration reactions involving monosaccharides|
The molecule that an enzymes reacts with is called its _____.
Which of the following terms includes all of the others?
What is the combination of the five carbon sugar and the nitrogenous base called in ATP?
If sufficient oxygen within a cell were available, what would be the end product of glycolysis?
What are the direct end products of the Citric Acid Cycle?
|A)||carbon dioxide and ATP|
|B)||ATP and acetyl-coenzyme-A|
|C)||ADP and heat|
What are the final end products of the electron transport chain?
|A)||ATP and NADH|
|B)||ATP and water|
|C)||ADP and hydrogen|
|D)||ATP and oxygen|
Which molecule represents the storage form of glucose in the liver?
The first step in the utilization of proteins for energy is ________, which occurs in the liver.
|D)||amino acid synthesis|
Genes are functional regions found within molecules of ______.
|C)||adenine and guanine|
Which of the following is not a compatible base pairing in DNA?
The production of mRNA from a DNA template is termed _____.
The base sequence termed the anticodon is found on molecules of _______.