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Full Glossary
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Abstract  words that refer to thoughts, ideas, or theories.
Accent  a nonverbal function that highlights, accentuates, or emphasizes verbal messages.
Acceptance speech  a brief statement made upon the receipt of an award, gift, or special honor.
Accommodation  an adaptation or adjustment.
Accommodation  sacrificing, in whole or in part, your own preferences and points of view.
Acronyms  words or names formed out of the first letter of words in a series (such as PUSH. for People United to Save Humanity).
Active listeners  people who focus on the moment, are aware of interactions as they unfold, and respond appropriately, and are aware of distractions.
Ad hoc groups  temporary groups created for the purpose of making a specific decision or solving a unique problem.
Adaptors  nonverbal gestures that we use to adapt to our environment, such as fanning ourselves when we are hot.
Adept  skilled.
Affective  emotional or sentimental.
After-dinner speech  a presentation that entertains or enlightens in an amusing way.
Agenda  a written guide that lists the order of tasks to be accomplished and topics to be discussed by the group.
Agenda-setting  the process by which media identify and structure important and meaningful issues for audiences.
Alienation  to be unfriendly or hostile-to isolate someone from the group.
Allness  the use of one aspect of our identity to describe our whole self.
Ambient sounds  background noise in a particular context, such as the clatter of plates and murmur of people talking in a busy restaurant.
Ambiguous  words that do not have a clear meaning.
Ambushing  a barrier to listening by which listeners seek ways to respond to or attack the speaker.
Amnesty  an official pardon or forgiveness for wrongdoing.
Analogy  compares or contrasts one unfamiliar concept or object with something that the audience already knows or understands.
Anchors  attitudes or beliefs that act as a personal standard for judging other messages.
Anecdote  a brief story.
Appeal to authority  a fallacy in which someone serves as a spokesperson outside his or her area of expertise.
Appeal to popular opinion  a fallacy based on the premise that the listener should think or act the same way as a substantial group of people.
Appreciation  the goal of listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
Appropriate audience attention  focuses the audience's thoughts on the topic and purpose of the speech.
Appropriated  take for one's own use.
Appropriateness  responding in ways that fit the communication context.
Arbitrary  words that have no direct connection to the objects they represent.
Argot  the specialized language of a co-culture.
Argument  a statement of belief, or claim, presented with evidence and reasoning.
Artifactics  the use of objects to communicate nonverbally.
Attending  the first stage in the listening process involves making the conscious choice to listen.
Attention step  an explicit attempt by the speaker to gain the audience's interest.
Attractiveness bias  the tendency to think better of attractive people than unattractive people and to make positive attributions about their behavior.
Attractiveness  what we visualize as the "perfect look" or idealized physical attributes.
Attribution  crediting or referencing the sources of information.
Attribution  the assignment of meaning to the actions of ourselves and others.
Audience centered  speakers adapt the speech to the audience's needs, level of knowledge, background, and interests.
Audience expectations  what the audience believes is going to happen during the speech.
Authoritarian leadership  the leader of the group makes all decisions for the group.
Autonomy  the desire to retain independence.
Avoidance  attempting to evade conflict.
Back context  a private environment that requires a less conscious effort to manage the impression you project to others.
Banal  dull or commonplace
Biorhythms  recurring cycles of biological processes, such as alertness or hunger that peak at a regular time each day.
Blind quadrant  the part of yourself that others know but you do not.
Breadth  the number of contexts in which communicators interact in a relationship.
Brief example  an illustration familiar to the audience, which therefore requires very little detail.
Cause and effect speech structure  divides the speech into the causes of some phenomenon and the effects that result from it.
Change  the need for novelty and new experiences.
Changeable  words based on social, political, and cultural contexts, and the historical time in which they are located.
Channels  the mediums that carry messages between communicators.
Charisma  the ability to influence others in specific situations through personal dynamism, likeability, and vision.
Chronemics  the use of time to communicate nonverbally.
Chronological speech structure  organizes a speech around segments or sequences of time.
Civic engagement  participating to create change, organizing others who share a common vision, and working to improve communities and organizations.
Civility  accepting others as equal partners in reaching common goals.
Claims of fact  statements about the truth or falsity of some assertion or statement.
Claims of policy  statements that ask listeners to consider a specific course of action.
Claims of value  statements that ask listeners to form a judgment or evaluation.
Clichés  worn-out phrases used so often that they have lost their vividness.
Co-culture  cultures within a culture.
Code  a set of conventions or rules shared by members of a culture and which governs the use of words and symbols.
Code-switching  the ability to adopt a preferred code based on the group with which you are interacting.
Coercion  psychologically or physically forcing the other person to accept your point of view.
Cognitive dissonance  the uncomfortable tension listeners experience when two ideas, concepts, or things that they believe, value, or do are related but contradictory.
Coherence  the standard of evaluating narratives that asks whether a story makes sense based on the details, order of events, credibility of the storyteller, behaviors of the characters, and comparisons with similar accounts.
Coherent  easy to follow; logical and consistent.
Cohesion  a sense of attachment, solidarity, and camaraderie that binds a group together.
Collaboration  working together to reach consensus.
Collectivism  emphasis on the importance of group obligations, needs, and identity.
Colloquial  informal language.
Communal  relating to a community or group of people who share interests.
Communication apprehension  fear of communication situations.
Communication climate  the way people feel about their interactions with others, either in relationships or in groups.
Communication  the process of creating and sharing meaning through the use of symbols.
Comparison speech structure  organizes information around distinct points of similarity or difference.
Complement  a nonverbal function that adds meaning to verbal messages.
Complete sentence outline  uses full sentences, including standard punctuation such as periods, commas, and questions marks, to delineate the speaking information.
Comprehension  the goal of listening for understanding.
Compromise  giving up something in order to find an acceptable solution to the problem.
Concrete  words that come as close as possible to an objective description of reality.
Confirmation  when others accept our presentation of self and act in harmony with the image we are displaying.
Conflict  a condition of disharmony and disagreement that exists when people who depend on one another see their needs, beliefs and values, or goals as incompatible.
Connection  the need to be included in a relationship.
Connotation  the meaning of words based on individual or cultural experiences or values.
Construct  an idea or category of meaning.
Constructive responses to conflict  communication characterized by cooperation, shared interests, flexibility, open discussion, and support of differences.
Constructivism  theory that people interpret and act on experience based on a mental system of organizing knowledge.
Contempt  disdain, scorn, or disapproval.
Contentious  controversial or debatable.
Continuous  a characteristic of nonverbal communication that indicates that nonverbal messages are streams of cues.
Continuum  an uninterrupted range or field.
Contradict  a nonverbal function that opposes, denies, or disagrees with a verbal message.
Credibility  the audience's perception of the speaker's expertise, character, and goodwill.
Crescendo  building toward a climax or highest point.
Cultivation theory  an approach to media research which argues that media consumption has a cumulative influence in promoting a shared worldview.
Cultural sensitivity  possessing the knowledge, awareness, and skills to communicate effectively and appropriately with diverse people.
Culture  everything that makes up our "way of life," including shared values, knowledge, behaviors, and symbolic expression.
Curriculum  a set of courses in a college or other school.
Dating  a process that places observations in a specific time frame to suggest that change is possible.
Decoding  the interpretation of a message by deciphering symbols into understandable and meaningful ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
Deduction  reasoning that starts with a general statement and draws a specific conclusion.
Defensiveness  acting protectively or as if one has been attacked.
Deference  high esteem or respect.
Definition  establishes the meanings of words or concepts.
Demeanor  one's outward behavior or way of carrying oneself.
Democratic leadership  The leader of the group allows all members to participate fully in the decision making process.
Demographic characteristics  the age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity or nationality, level of education, and professional interests of the audience.
Denotation  the most concrete, specific, and objective meaning of a word.
Depth  the amount of time communicators interact and the personal level of information they exchange in a relationship.
Derived credibility  the credibility, or belief, in a speaker that is created by the content of the message and the manner in which it is presented.
Despotic  a cruel and repressive leader.
Destructive responses to conflict  communication characterized by competition, self-centeredness, hostility, and defensiveness.
Dialectical tensions  ongoing, changing needs that are often opposite or contradictory.
Disconfirmation  when others ignore our presentation of self and act indifferent to the image we are displaying.
Discrete  separate and distinct.
Disfluencies  vocal pauses such as "um," "aaa," and "and a."
Disfranchised  alienated or excluded.
Display rules  cultural expectations about the public display of emotions.
Disruptive roles  satisfy member's needs at the expense of the group.
Diversity  the value of distinct perspectives that membership in various groups can bring and understanding the process by which difference becomes meaningful and developing the competence to live, learn, and work within many cultures.
Dogmatic  rigid and inflexible.
Doublespeak  the use of language to intentionally obscure, confuse, equivocate, or deceive.
Dyads  consist of two people communicating.
Dynamism  energy and drive.
Electronic society  the stage at which all forms of communication have been influenced, either directly or indirectly, by electronic media.
Emblems  nonverbal gestures with specific and definitive meanings, often substituting for explicit verbal words.
Emoticons  keyboard symbols used in e-mail or chat rooms to simulate facial expressions or voice qualities.
Empathetic echo  a listening or response technique that paraphrases or repeats a message.
Empathetic listening  establishes common ground between people by acknowledging the legitimacy of feelings and giving support to others.
Empathy  the ability to accurately perceive the experience and behavior of another person.
Encoding  the initiation and creation of a message as a communicator translates ideas, thoughts, and feelings into symbols.
Enduring credibility  the impression of credibility that remains with your audience.
Entertainment  the form of gratification we get when media function as a form of wish fulfillment, providing satisfying images and stimulating emotions.
Enunciation  saying words clearly.
Epithet  a negative label used to describe a person.
Equivocate  use of ambiguous words to deceive.
Estranged  no longer close or affectionate; unfriendly or hostile.
Ethics  the principles that guide our decisions about what is good or bad, right or wrong.
Ethos  the ethics or credibility of the speaker.
Euphemism  a socially accepted word or phrase substituted for an uncomfortable or unacceptable one.
Evaluation  the goal of listening to render an opinion or judgment.
Examples  illustrations or stories that explicate a particular point.
Explanation  clarifies some concept or idea by further identifying its source, explaining how it works, or relating it to other concepts.
Expression  the need to be or have others be open, candid, and confiding.
Expressive communication  verbally acknowledging how others feel and sharing experiences.
Extemporaneous speaking  using a keyword outline to deliver a prepared speech.
Extended example  a single illustration retold with detail and context.
Eye contact  looking at the audience when delivering a speech.
Facework  the act of presenting the self.
Fallacy  an error in reasoning.
False cause  a fallacy that implies a cause-and-effect relationship where none exists.
False choice  a fallacy in which the speaker presents a false dichotomy between two choices.
Feedback  a response or reaction to a message.
Femininity  a emphasis on interdependence, quality of life, and variability in the roles that females and males are expected to perform.
Fester  annoy, irritate, or aggravate to make something worse.
Fidelity  the standard of evaluating narratives that refers to the truthfulness of a story based on the facts and relevance to personal experience or values.
Figurative analogy  compares two or more concepts, objects, people, or places from different classes or categories.
Flaming  impolite outbursts.
Fluctuates  changes, varies, alternatives, swings back and forth, ebbs and flows.
Foot in the door  the technique of starting with a small request and then following later with a more substantial one.
Front context  a public setting where you actively manage the impression you project to others.
Fundamental attribution error  the overestimation of the degree to which other people's behaviors are due to internal factors and underestimation of the significance of external forces.
Gatekeepers  editors, producers, webmasters, and other media managers who decide which messages will get produced.
Gender identity  the conception you have of yourself as a male or female, masculine or feminine.
General speech purpose  the overall objective of the speech, such as to inform, to persuade, or to entertain.
Generalized other  a composite view of society's reflection of yourself.
Generic  general, standard.
Gestures  significant body movements that convey a message.
Gossip  talk about an absent third party.
Gratification function  the active use of media to fulfill needs and desires.
Group charge  the overall or main objective of the group.
Group norms  expectations, established through interaction, about how members should behave.
Group synergy  group members combine their abilities to produce an outcome greater than the sum of their individual abilities.
Haptics  the use of touch to communicate nonverbally.
Hasty generalization  a fallacy in which the speaker draws a conclusion about a group or general condition based on limited examples.
Hearing  the act of perceiving sounds or other related stimuli.
Hidden quadrant  those things that you know about yourself but others do not.
High context  an interaction style in which people expect others to figure out implicit meanings based on the situation or the relationship between communicators.
Homepage  the first document posted on a website and the doorway though which additional documents or information can be accessed.
Homophobic  possessing irrational fear and/or hatred of homosexuality.
Hypodermic needle model  explains direct media effects by suggesting that a specific message can be "shot" into an unsuspecting audience.
Hypothetical example  an illustration that is not real, but imaginary.
Identity  the conception of yourself as a member of a group or category.
Idiosyncratic  personal, unique, individual, all your own.
Illustrators  nonverbal gestures that accent or clarify verbal messages.
Imagery  evoking a mental picture in the mind of the audience.
Imaginary audience syndrome  tendency of teenage girls to think that other people are preoccupied with their appearance and behaviors.
Imbue  invest with or permeate.
Impervious  unresponsive to or incapable of being affected by what someone says or means.
Impromptu speaking  delivering a speech with little or no preparation.
Inclusive language  verbal communication that demonstrates respect for others by using language that values them as individuals.
Indexing  a process that ties evaluations to a specific circumstance to make them unique.
Indifference  a lack of interest in listening.
Individualism  emphasis on the importance of individual rights over group rights, individual needs over group needs, and individual identity over group identity.
Induction  reasoning from a particular instance to a generalization.
Inference  a conclusion, projection, or interpretation based on facts.
Inference  the interpretations or conclusions we draw based on specific statements or facts.
Inflection  the vocal emphasis placed on each word when speaking.
Information  when discussing media gratification, the desire for knowledge based on curiosity, personal investment, or need.
Initial credibility  the credibility you bring to a situation by virtue of your reputation or accomplishments.
Initiator  one who begins or advances the communication process by generating a message.
Inspirational speech  a presentation that aims to motivate listeners and arouse their passions.
Instrumental communication  listening or responding to help others solve problems or accomplish goals.
Integrating topics  areas of common interest that members of a relationship enjoy discussing.
Interim  an intervening or temporary step
Internal summary  reviews concepts or ideas to help remind the audience of key points and to move the speech to the next important point.
Interpersonal communication  interaction among a small number of people.
Interpersonal communication  occurs when individuals treat each other as unique and interact in an individual or customized way.
Interpersonal similarity  occurs when we share common attitudes, values, habits, and communication styles with other members of a relationship.
Interpretation  stage of perception in which we determine the meaning of an event or interaction.
Interpreter  one who perceives and attempts to understand a message.
Interpreting  the second stage in the listening process involves giving meaning to sounds or related stimuli.
Intimate interpersonal relationships  characterized by high levels of trust, warmth, and affection; nonintimate relationships are more impersonal, distant, and formal.
Intrapersonal communication  an internal dialogue with ourselves; self-talk.
Intrinsic  a characteristic of nonverbal communication indicating that nonverbal messages are inherently connected to our emotions and mental states.
Intrinsically  inherently or fundamentally connected to something.
Jargon  a technical language often associated with a particular profession.
Johari Window  a model depicting an individual's degree of self-awareness.
Key word outline  uses only a few important words from each sentence of a complete sentence outline to delineate the speaking information.
Kinesics  the use of body motion to communicate nonverbally.
Laissez-faire leadership  the leader of the group gives minimal guidance and allows group members work with little or no structure.
Latitude of acceptance  the range of positions a listener is likely to accept or tolerate.
Latitude of noncommittment  the range of positions a listener neither accepts or rejects.
Latitude of rejection  the range of positions a listener is likely to reject or consider intolerable.
Lavish  plentiful or extravagant.
Lay people  individuals who are not part of the clergy.
Leadership  the process of exerting positive influence over other group members.
Leakage  a nonverbal cue that reveals emotions we are trying to conceal.
Lexical recall  ability to remember a specific word.
Linguistic relativity hypothesis  the idea that our thoughts are influenced by the words we know and the patterns of language that dominate our culture.
Listening  the process of perceiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken or nonverbal messages.
Literacy  ability to comprehend and use written symbols.
Literal analogy  compares two concepts, objects, people, or places that are inherently similar to each other.
Logos  arguments based on logic or reason.
Low context  an interaction style in which communicators expect information to be direct and explicit.
Luxuricating  to indulge oneself in a lavish or extremely comfortable manner.
Main points  the most important ideas to be communicated to the audience and those that lead directly to the specific purpose of the speech.
Maintenance roles  serve to build relationships within the group and to create a sense of teamwork.
Manuscript speaking  delivering a speech from a script written out word for word.
Masculinity  emphasis on power, assertiveness, independence, materialism, and rigid distinctions between expectations of males and females.
Mass communication  the creation of meaning through messages sent to a large, unseen, and anonymous audience.
Media literacy  ability to understand the language of media and critically assess the contribution of media to society.
Media synergy  the use by media conglomerates of as many channels of delivery as possible for similar content.
Media  the vehicles that carry messages.
Mediated communication  occurs when communicators use some form of technology, including television, radio, film, newspapers, and the Internet.
Memorized speaking  delivering a speech by writing out the speech, memorizing the content, and then delivering it word for word, without the use of notes.
Message overload  occurs when communicators are overwhelmed with the number of messages; communicators who experience overload stop attending to or comprehending some or most of the messages they perceive.
Message  a symbolic expression of ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
Metacommunication  communication about communication; discussing the relationship dimension of messages is one type of metacommunication.
Metaphor  a figure of speech that compares two objects, feelings, or concepts.
Metaphor  comparing one thing, idea, or action to another.
Misnomer  misnamed or inappropriate use of a name, label, or title.
Monochronic cultures  cultures that view time as linear rather than circular.
Moral relativism  the idea that there are no absolute moral standards.
Motivated sequence  a persuasive speech structure designed to move audiences toward taking immediate action.
Mundane  ordinary, routine, or unexceptional.
Mythos  the use of myths, legends, and folktales as persuasive appeals.
Name-calling  a fallacy based on attacking a speaker's physical or character traits rather than the content of his or her argument.
Narrative speech structure  organizes a speech around one or more stories.
Network society  the integration of several communication technologies into a new social system.
Noise  anything that interferes with the creation of shared meaning between or among communicators.
Nonlinguistic  a characteristic of nonverbal communication indicating that nonverbal messages are outside languages.
Nonverbal communication  messages expressed through symbols other than words.
Nonverbal communication  messages expressed through symbols other than words, including hand gestures, facial expressions, touching, vocal inflection, and clothing.
Occasion  the time, mood, and setting of the speech.
Olfactory  the use of smell to communicate nonverbally.
Open quadrant  the part of yourself that is known both to you and to others.
Oral cultures  cultures in which speaking and hearing are the dominant forms of communication.
Organization  placing stimuli in a knowledge structure or category to give them meaning and aid retention.
Outline  a concise synopsis that displays the structure and relationship of speech ideas and concepts.
Pantomime  to act out or demonstrate without saying any words.
Paradox  an apparent contradiction or inconsistency.
Paraphrasing  listeners summarize messages in their own words.
Participation  the level of communication where we accept others who are different as unique, valuable, and integrated into our lives.
Passive aggression  indirect expression of hostility, often through the use of humor, guilt, or inconsiderate behavior.
Passive listeners  people who expend little or no energy in the listening process.
Pathos  arguments based on emotional appeals.
Patterned  follows a regular order.
Peer reviewed  experts in the discipline select only the best articles to publish in a journal.
Penny press  inexpensive, mass-produced newspapers designed to appeal to the growing immigrant population in the United States.
Perception check  tool that gauges the accuracy of your perceptions by engaging in conversations with others.
Perception shifts  strategies for thinking creatively and managing different perspectives.
Perception  process of assigning meaning to sensory information and experiences.
Perceptual constancy  tendency to maintain the same perception of people and events over time.
Perceptual field  the range of stimuli that the mind can apprehend.
personal constructs  categories by which people and events can be differentiated.
Perspective taking  the ability to consider behavior from someone else's point of view.
Persuasion  attempting to get others to change their point of view.
Physical attraction  occurs when we are attracted to someone's appearance through such attributes as facial features, height, body type, and hair color.
Pithy  clever or noteworthy
Plagiarism  using other people's ideas, methods, or words without proper acknowledgment.
Polychronic  cultures that view time as circular rather than linear.
Power distance  the relative value that cultures place on status and power in relationships.
Predisposition  a tendency or inclination to think or behave in a particular way.
Preliterate  the state of a people before acquiring the ability to read and write.
Primary source  firsthand knowledge, testimony, or direct evidence from authors who created the information.
Priming  audience use of conceptual categories that have been emphasized in the media.
Privacy  the need to be or have others be restrained, circumspect, and distant.
Problem/solution speech structure  organizes information in a speech around one or more problems and one or more solutions to those problems.
Problem-solving agenda (PSA)  a standard approach to group problem solving that maximizes critical thinking while minimizing rash or impulsive decisions.
Process speech  describes how to make or do something by listing the essential steps of the process in time order from the earliest to the latest.
Pronunciation  saying words according to accepted standards of English and in accordance with the expectations of the audience.
Prototype  a specific person, personality, or phenomenon that exemplifies a set of characteristics.
Proverbial  having the characteristic of a well-known story or proverb.
Proxemics  the use of space to communicate nonverbally.
Proximity  the equality of being close to something, an object, person, or event.
Pseudolistening  pretending to listen.
Public communication  interaction with large numbers of people.
Rate  how quickly or slowly a speech is delivered.
Reciprocity  taking turns, responding in kind.
Reconnaissance  to scout out a location beforehand.
Recrimination  to seek revenge or punishment.
Reference groups  groups with which we most strongly identify.
Referential meaning  a meaning that can be indicated by pointing to an object.
Regulate  a function of nonverbal communication that controls, adjusts, or alters the flow of verbal messages.
Rejection  when others contradict the presentation of ourself and act inconsistently with the image we are displaying.
Remembering  the final stage in the listening process involves the retention and recall of the messages.
Repeat  a function of nonverbal communication that reiterates verbal messages.
Repertoire  a range of effective and ethical communication behaviors from which to choose.
Repugnant  extremely distasteful.
Resilient  strong; able to recover quickly from injury, either mental or physical.
Resistance  the level of communication where we judge others who are different and avoid or reject them.
Respect  the level of communication where we begin to see value in the ways that others are different.
Responding  the third stage in the listening process involves any discernable reaction including both verbal and nonverbal feedback.
Rhetorical question  a question you want the audience to think about but not answer vocally.
Role taking  the act of understanding the motives, interests, and actions of other people and adopting those actions, at least temporarily, in the self.
Ruminating  mull over, ponder, and think about over and over.
Salience  personal relevance or interest.
Salience  prominent, important, or relevant.
Scripts  guides to actions and expectations based on the categorization of perceptions.
Search engine  software that searches homepages for key words and phrases.
Secondary source  information based on other people's observation or research.
Selection  focusing on some sensory stimuli rather than others.
Selective exposure  people choose to watch or listen to media messages that confirm existing beliefs.
Selective retention  people choose to remember media messages that confirm existing beliefs.
Self  the total composite of a person's personality, experiences, and identity.
Self-awareness  the consciousness of our existence and degree to which we understand ourselves.
Self-concept  a relatively consistent image or set of perceptions that you have about yourself.
Self-deprecating  criticizing or making fun of oneself.
Self-disclosure  the intentional revelation of personal aspects of your self, including thoughts, preferences, feelings, and experiences, to another person within the context of an interpersonal relationship.
Self-esteem  the value you attach to your self-concept.
Self-fulfilling prophecy  the tendency to live up to the expectations created for us.
Self-monitoring  the ability to see, think about, and act based on the consequences of your behavior.
Self-serving bias  the tendency to attribute external causes to our own misfortunes, but not to those of others.
Semantic noise  a barrier to listening triggered by a particular word or phrase used by a speaker.
Sensations  perceptions of the body's condition.
Shock talk  words or statements designed to horrify, outrage, or otherwise offend listeners.
Significant others  people who are particularly important to you and with whom you share a close relationship.
Signpost  tell an audience where they are and where they are going in a speech.
Similarity bias  the attribution of our own motivations to someone else's behaviors.
Simile  a type of metaphor that compares two things using the words "like" or "as."
Simultaneous  occurring at the same time.
Slippery slope  a fallacy based on the assumption that once a single step is taken, many other destructive ones are sure to follow.
Small group communication  interaction among three to seven people who communicate over time to accomplish some goal or purpose.
Small group  a limited number of individuals who communicate interdependently to achieve a common goal.
Social comparison  when we understand our self by comparing it to others.
Social identity theory  our identification with social groups is important for our self-concept, and the relative salience of a given identity depends on social context.
Social judgment theory  evaluation of persuasive messages based on the beliefs we already hold.
Social learning  the general theory that we learn new behaviors, customs, and routines by watching others.
Social penetration theory  we disclose increasingly personal information about ourselves as the relationship develops, and we reserve discussion about our most private thoughts for our most intimate relationships.
Social proximity  refers to "social closeness"; and we are often attracted to people who live near us, belong to the same groups or organizations, or attend the same school.
Social utility  the function media serve when they provide common topics about social relationships and models for behavior.
Socially ascribed  having characteristics attributed by others.
Spatial speech structure  organizes a speech around familiar relationships in the environment, such as near and far, up and down, right and left, or east and west.
Speaking aids  visual and auditory props which speakers use to develop a speech and help the audience conceptualize ideas.
Specific speech purpose  the precise goal the speaker wants to achieve with the audience.
Speech of introduction  a presentation that gives the audience information about the key speaker.
Speech of tribute  a presentation that includes eulogies, toasts, and other speeches that commemorate special events such as national holidays.
Speech that calls for action  persuasive speaking aimed to move the audience to a specific behavior.
Speech that convinces  persuasive speaking that urges listeners to accept contentious facts, evaluate beliefs, or support actions.
Speech that demonstrates  a presentation that shows audiences how to do something.
Speech that describes  a presentation that provides details of an object or concept.
Speech that explains  a presentation that teaches about or clarifies an event or development.
Speech that narrates  a presentation that uses an extended story to make a statement.
Speech that reinforces  persuasive speaking that attempts to strengthen existing attitudes, beliefs, or values.
Speech to entertain  a speech whose overall objective is to amuse, enthrall, cheer, charm, or otherwise please an audience.
Speech to inform  a speech whose overall objective is to explain a concept, idea, or process to an audience.
Speech to persuade  a speech whose overall objective is to influence an audience to accept a belief, agree with a value, or take an action.
Stability  the need to control our environment through safe and conventional routines.
Stages of relationship development  patterns or life cycles that relationships pass through as they develop or deteriorate. Relationships have a beginning (or birth), middle (coming of age), and an end (death).
Standing group  a group that has a broad mandate and works continuously on a variety of related problems.
Statistics  numerical representations used to quantify ideas or concepts.
Stereotypes  specific kinds of labels that characterize people based on the assumed traits of others in their group.
Stimuli  things that evoke a reaction.
Stonewalling  attempt to avoid or postpone discussion.
Subpoints  ideas that amplify or develop the main points.
Subsidiary  secondary or lesser importance.
Substitute  a function of nonverbal communication that takes the place of verbal messages.
Surveillance  the function of media to keep the public informed about social and political events.
Syllogism  a form of reasoning that draws a conclusion based on two premises.
Symbolic  the property of words that allows us to talk about things without being the things themselves.
Symbols  the words, images, gestures, and expressions that we use to represent our thoughts, ideas, beliefs, and feelings.
Sympathy  showing compassion for another person's feelings or situation.
Synchronize  to coordinate activities and behaviors.
Syntax  a characteristic of languages that prescribes a certain word order.
Taboos  prohibited words or the behaviors that those words describe.
Tangential  off the subject and unrelated to the main discussion.
Task roles  facilitate the group goal or purpose.
Task-avoidance  engaging in excessive socialization to postpone or forestall working on the group project.
Technological convergence  the union of different, specialized media to meet the individual needs of users.
Territoriality  the tendency of humans to mark and defend a particular space.
Testimony  stated opinion in support of an idea.
Third person effect  the belief that media influence others more than ourselves.
Tolerance  the level of communication where we are willing to acknowledge that differences exist.
Topic outline  uses brief phrases to summarize the major points of a presentation.
Topical speech structure  organizes a speech around types or categories.
Toxic noise  excessive environmental sound that distracts or pollutes the quality of life.
Transactional communication  messages that communicators initiate and interpret simultaneously.
Transcendent  surpassing human experience or beyond the material world.
Transitions  verbal bridges that move the speech from one point or idea to the next.
Trash talk  words or statements designed to insult perceived adversaries, usually involving name-calling or threats.
Trite  worn out, clichéd, or trivial.
Turning points  particular events, feelings, or interactions that change the direction or intensity of a relationship.
Ubiquitous  everywhere, ever present.
Ubiquitous  everywhere, ever-present.
Uncertainty avoidance  the degree of uncertainty tolerated by members of a culture or group.
Unknown quadrant  the category of things that neither you nor others know about yourself.
Urban legend  an outrageous story that circulates in the tabloid press or on the Internet, such as stories of travelers who enjoy a drink in a lounge and awaken to find that their kidneys have been removed by criminal organ harvesters.
Verbal language  the systematic use of words and symbols to create and convey meaning.
Verbal communication  messages expressed through a formal language, using oral, written, or signed words.
Visualization  a technique used to control communication apprehension by replacing negative thoughts and images with positive ones.
Vividness  includes all sensations that seem to stand out from their surroundings.
Vocal pauses  sounds speakers make while stopping to think of what they are going to say next, such as "ah," "a," "and a," "um," and "uh."
Vocal variety  varying the rate, volume, and inflection in delivering a speech.
Vocalics  the use of your voice to communicate nonverbally.
Volume  how loudly a speech is delivered.
Voyeurism  the practice of obtaining enjoyment or sexual gratification from the observation of others in private settings.
Web browser  software that allows you to go from one site to another on the Internet and view Web pages.

Dobkin, Comm ChangingWorld2006Online Learning Center with Powerweb

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