1 Which error detection method uses one's complement arithmetic? A) Simple parity check B) Two-dimensional parity check C) CRC D) Checksum 2 Which error detection method consists of just one redundant bit per data unit? A) Simple parity check B) Two-dimensional parity check C) CRC D) Checksum 3 In cyclic redundancy checking, what is the CRC? A) The divisor B) The quotient C) The dividend D) The remainder 4 In cyclic redundancy checking, the divisor is _______ the CRC. A) The same size as B) one bit less than C) one bit more than D) none of the above 5 A burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit have changed. A) double-bit B) burst C) single-bit D) none of the above 6 In ________ error correction, the receiver corrects errors without requesting retransmission. A) backward B) onward C) forward D) none of the above 7 In ________ error correction, the receiver asks the sender to send the data again. A) backward B) retransmission C) forward D) none of the above 8 We can divide coding schemes into two broad categories: ________ and ______coding. A) block; linear B) linear; nonlinear C) block; convolution D) none of the above 9 In modulo-2 arithmetic, __________ give the same results. A) addition and multiplication B) addition and division C) addition and subtraction D) none of the above 10 In modulo-2 arithmetic, we use the ______ operation for both addition and subtraction. A) XOR B) OR C) AND D) none of the above 11 In _____ coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits, called ___. A) block; blockwords B) linear; datawords C) block; datawords D) none of the above 12 We add r redundant bits to each block to make the length n = k + r . The resulting n -bit blocks are called _________. A) datawords B) blockwords C) codewords D) none of the above 13 The ________ between two words is the number of differences between corresponding bits. A) Hamming code B) Hamming distance C) Hamming rule D) none of the above 14 To guarantee the detection of up to 5 errors in all cases, the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must be _______. A) 5 B) 6 C) 11 D) none of the above 15 To guarantee correction of up to 5 errors in all cases, the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must be ________. A) 5 B) 6 C) 11 D) none of the above 16 In a linear block code, the _______ of any two valid codewords creates another valid codeword. A) XORing B) ORing C) ANDing D) none of the above 17 A simple parity-check code can detect __________ errors. A) an even-number of B) two C) no errors D) an odd-number of 18 _______codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. If a codeword is rotated, the result is another codeword. A) Non-linear B) Convolution C) Cyclic D) none of the above 19 The _____of errors is more difficult than the ______. A) correction; detection B) detection; correction C) creation; correction D) creation; detection 20 In modulo-11 arithmetic, we use only the integers in the range ______, inclusive. A) 1 to 10 B) 1 to 11 C) 0 to 10 D) none of the above 21 In modulo-2 arithmetic, we use only ______. A) 1 and 2 B) 0 and 2 C) 0 and 1 D) none of the above 22 Adding 1 and 1 in modulo-2 arithmetic results in _________. A) 1 B) 2 C) 0 D) none of the above 23 In block coding, if k =2 and n =3, we have _______ invalid codewords. A) 8 B) 4 C) 2 D) none of the above 24 The Hamming distance between equal codewords is _________. A) 1 B) n C) 0 D) none of the above 25 The Hamming distance between 100 and 001 is ________. A) 2 B) 0 C) 1 D) none of the above 26 In block coding, if n = 5, the maximum Hamming distance between two codewords is ________. A) 2 B) 3 C) 5 D) none of the above 27 If the Hamming distance between a dataword and the corresponding codeword is three, there are _____ bits in error. A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) none of the above 28 The _______ of a polynomial is the highest power in the polynomial. A) range B) degree C) power D) none of the above 29 The divisor in a cyclic code is normally called the _________. A) degree B) generator C) redundancy D) none of the above 30 A generator that contains a factor of ____ can detect all odd-numbered errors. A) x B) x + 1 C) 1 D) none of the above 31 Checksums use _________ arithmetic. A) two's complement arithmetic B) one's complement arithmetic C) either (a) or (b) D) none of the above 32 In one's complement arithmetic, if positive 7 is 0111, then negative 7 is ________. A) 1111 B) 1101 C) 1000 D) none of the above 33 The checksum of 1111 and 1111 is _________. A) 1111 B) 0000 C) 1110 D) 0111 34 The checksum of 0000 and 0000 is __________. A) 1111 B) 0000 C) 1110 D) 0111