Which of the following is NOT a right granted to crime victims in at least some jurisdictions?
|A)||the right to be informed, present, and heard at important criminal justice proceedings|
|B)||the right of sexual assault victims to be paid for forensic exams|
|C)||the right to HIV testing of sex offenders and notification of the results|
|D)||all of the above are rights|
Which of the following is a problem with victims' rights laws and their implementation?
|A)||victims from other cultures and those with disabilities frequently are not given the opportunity to participate in criminal and juvenile justice proceedings|
|B)||many states do not provide comprehensive rights for the victims of crimes committed by juveniles|
|C)||victims' rights in tribal, military, and administrative proceedings are generally nonexistent|
|D)||all of the above are problems|
For which of the following uses do laws specify that restitution may NOT be court ordered?
|A)||lost or damaged property|
|D)||it may be ordered for all of these uses|
Which of the following factors does NOT influence a judge's sentencing decision?
|B)||prevailing philosophical rationales|
|D)||all of the above influences a judge's sentencing decision|
Which of the following types of sentences has been a principal tool in the effort to rehabilitate offenders?
When did social scientists and politicians begin to question whether the rehabilitation of most criminal offenders was even possible?
In what year was indeterminate sentencing replaced with determinate sentencing at the state-level for the first time?
Which of the following is NOT a type of determinate sentence?
Which of the following philosophical rationales for punishment includes "revenge" and "just desserts"?
Which of the following philosophical rationales for punishment is the only one that specifically addresses what has happened in the past?
Which of the following philosophical rationales for punishment is associated with banishment, exile, the deportation of foreign nationals, and "three strikes and you're out laws"?
Which purpose of sentencing do most Americans think should be the most important?
What was the primary rationale for punishing criminal offenders for much of the twentieth century?
When did increased scholarly attention to the plight of victims and a fledgling victims' rights movement begin?
Which of the following is NOT a right of defendants during allocution?
|A)||to deny or to explain information contained in the presentence investigation report if the sentence is based on it|
|B)||to plead for a pardon|
|C)||to argue about whether or not they are guilty as charged|
|D)||to claim that they have gone insane since the verdict was rendered|
When was the earliest recorded lawful execution in America?
Since the first one, approximately how many legal executions have been performed in the United States under civil authority?
Which of the following methods of execution currently is used by the most states?
In what year did the U.S. Supreme Court set aside (as unconstitutional) death sentences for the first time in its history?
Which of the following states accounts for more than one-third of all post-Furman executions?
How many states have capital punishment statutes?
_____ refers to sentencing that allows a judge to retain some sentencing discretion, subject to appellate review. The legislature determines a sentence range for each crime.
|D)||good time sentencing|
A "forgiveness" for the crime committed that stops further criminal processing refers to (a/an)_____.
Which of the following is NOT a procedural reform approved of by the Supreme Court in its Gregg decision?
|B)||guidelines for judges and juries|
|C)||automatic appellate review|
|D)||all of the above are procedural reforms approved of by the Supreme Court|
_____ are documents that are used in the federal system and the majority of states to help judges determine the appropriate sentence. They also are used in classifying probationers, parolees, and prisoners according to their treatment needs and security risk.
|B)||Presentence investigation reports|