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Multiple Choice Quiz
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The landmass known as Beringia
A)stretched from Siberia to the Canadian Yukon
B)was formed when sea levels were at least 50m below those of today
C)may have provided a route for the initial settlement of the Americas
D)all of the above

Pollen data suggest that Beringia
A)was a dry, windswept terrain
B)was home of a dense concentration of land mammals
C)could have supported a large human hunter-gatherer population
D)all of the above

A major cause of global climatic changes at the end of the Pleistocene was
A)extinction of many mammal species
B)rising sea levels
C)changes in earth-sun geometry
D)all of the above

The Nenana Complex is
A)a toolkit that was used by hunter-gatherers in the Great Plains
B)a toolkit that was used by early hunters in Alaska
C)a toolkit that was used by late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in Siberia
D)a toolkit that was used by early hunter-gatherers in South America

The earliest well-dated archaeological site in the Americas south of Beringia is
C)Monte Verde
D)Murray Springs

The Denali Complex
A)is an industry based on microblades
B)first appears in Alaska about 10,700 B.P.
C)resembles Late Pleistocene industries from Siberia
D)all of the above

The ice sheets in North America
A)melted about 500 years later than the glaciers in Europe
B)melted about 500 years earlier than the glaciers in Europe
C)began to retreat about 20,000 years ago
D)had completely disappeared by 11,000 B.P.

Clovis points were first discovered at the site of
A)Murray Springs
C)Blackwater Draw

Unlike the earlier Nanana Complex in Alaska, Clovis sites are characterized by
A)side scrapers and end scrapers
B)fluted points

Which of the following sites provides evidence of mammoth hunting by Clovis hunters?
C)Murray Springs
D)all of the above

The Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis suggests that
A)climatic changes played a major role in the extinction of the mammoths
B)humans played no role in the extinction of large Australian marsupials
C)Humans played a major role in the extinction of many mammal species in Australia and the Americas
D)far more extinctions took place in Africa than in North America

A major argument against the Overkill Hypothesis is
A)that humans never hunted mammoths and mastodonts
B)that there were far more extinctions in Africa and Eurasia than there were in Australia and North America
C)that of all the North American species that became extinct between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago, humans hunted only the mammoth and mastodont
D)that late Pleistocene humans did not have the technological skills to hunt large mammals

The archaeological evidence from the Murray springs site in southern Arizona suggests that
A)both human hunting and climatic changes may have played a role in the extinction of the mammoths
B)only human hunting played a role in the extinction of the mammoth in North America
C)only climatic changes played a role in the extinction of the North American mammoth
D)none of the above

As an alternative to the Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis, Dale Guthrie has suggested that
A)warmer temperatures at the end of the Ice Age would have led to large mammal extinctions
B)warmer summers and colder winters may have led to changes in vegetation communities that affected animals who relied on a diverse plant diet
C)retreating ice sheets caused flooding that may have led to the extinction of large mammals
D)all of the above

The Kimmswick site in Missouri provides archaeological evidence for
A)mastodont hunting
B)mammoth hunting
C)a quarry for high quality jasper
D)a settlement site with year-round occupation

The Folsom site is important because
A)it shows that late Pleistocene hunter hunted mammoths
B)it was the first site to show that Native Americans occupied North America at the same time as late Pleistocene fauna
C)it shows that late Pleistocene hunters traveled great distances to obtain tool stone
D)all of the above

The term Paleoindian is applied to
A)the Clovis Complex
B)the Nenana Complex
C)the Folsom Complex
D)all of the above

The Monte Verde site is important because
A)it disproves the Clovis-first model for the settlement of the Americas
B)it suggests that the New World was settled by trans-Pacific seafarers
C)it shows that the pre-Clovis settlers of South America relied almost entirely on big-game hunting
D)all of the above

The Quebrada sites in Peru
A)are broadly contemporary with the Clovis and Folsom sites in North America
B)show that early coastal populations in South America relied on Marine resources, such as fish and seabirds
C)suggest that early settlers may have used a coastal route to enter the Americas
D)all of the above

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