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Interviewing: Principles and Practices, 11/e
Charles J. Stewart, Purdue University--West Lafayette
William B. Cash, National Louis University--Evanston


Abrupt or curt
short and often rude responses or curtailing of interactions.

Accidental bias
when an interviewer unintentionally leads respondents to give answers they feel the interviewer wants them to give rather than their true feelings, attitudes, or beliefs.

Ad hominem
an effort to dodge an issue or challenge by discrediting the source that raised it.

Ad populum
an appeal to or on behalf of the majority.

words to which interview parties may assign very different meanings.

a careful examination of the nature and content of answers and impressions noted during an interview.

Applicant profile
the required knowledge, experiences, skills, and personal traits necessary to perform a job satisfactorily.

Application form
a form created by an organization to gather basic information about applicants, including their backgrounds, experiences, education, and career interests.

Appraisal perspective
the performance interview is seen as required, scheduled, superior-conducted and directed, adversarial, evaluative, and pastoriented.

assuming that something is true or false, intended or unintended, exists or does not exist, desired or undesired, will or will not happen.

relatively enduring combinations of beliefs that predispose people to respond in particular ways to persons, organizations, places, ideas, and issues.

Balance or consistency theory
a theory based on the belief that human beings strive for a harmonious existence with self and others and experience psychological discomfort (dissonance) when they do not.

Balanced scorecard approach
compensation, measurement, and performance are tied to coaching and improved performance.

Bandwagon tactic
a tactic that urges a person to follow the crowd, to do what everyone else is doing.

Basic skills tests
tests that measure mathematics, measurement, reading, and spelling skills.

Behavior-based selection
selection based upon the behaviors desired in a position and behaviors exhibited by applicants.

Behavior-based selection technique
a selection technique that begins with a needs and position analysis to determine which behaviors are essential for performing a particular job and proceeds to match applicants with this analysis.

Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) model
a performance review model that identifies essential skills for a specific job and sets standards through a job analysis.

the trust or confidence placed in social, political, historic, economic, and religious claims.

Bifurcation tactic
the polarizing of situations, issues, or persons.

Bipolar question
a question that limits the respondent to two polar choices such as yes or no, agree or disagree.

Bipolar trap
a bipolar question phrased to elicit a yes or no response when the questioner wants a detailed answer or specific information.

Birds of a feather syndrome
the selection of employees most similar to interviewers.

Blocking tactics
efforts of interviewers to avoid counseling or getting involved with interviewees, particularly in the health care setting.

Board interview
when two to five persons representing an organization may interview an applicant at the same time.

Bogardus Social Distance scales
questions that determine how respondents feel about social relationships and distances from them.

Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQ)
requirements essential for performing a particular job.

Broadcast interview
an interview that takes place live over radio or television or will be played all or in part at a later time.

Built-in bias
interviewer bias that is intentionally or unintentionally built into a schedule of questions.

Career fairs
gatherings of organizations and companies, often at malls or on college campuses, during which job seekers may make contacts with representatives and gather information about employment opportunities.

Career objective
a brief, concise statement of a targeted career goal.

Case approach
when an applicant is placed into a carefully crafted situation that takes hours to study and resolve.

Cause-to-effect sequence
an outline that addresses causes and effects separately but relationally.

Central tendency
when interviewers refrain from assigning extreme ratings to facets of performance.

Chain or contingency strategy
a strategy that allows for preplanned secondary questions in survey interviews.

Chronological format resume
a resume that lists education, training, and experiences in chronological order.

Clearinghouse probe
a question designed to discover whether previous questions have uncovered everything of importance on a topic or issue.

Client-centered approach
a counseling approach that focuses on the client rather than content or situation.

Closed-minded or authoritarian interviewees
parties with unchangeable central beliefs who rely on trusted authorities when making decisions.

Closed question
a question that is narrow in focus and restricts the respondent's freedom to determine the amount and kind of information to offer.

the portion of an interview that brings it to an end.

helping to improve performance rather than judging or criticizing performance.

Cognitive phase
the thinking and assessing phase of a counseling interview.

a mutual effort by both parties to inform, analyze, and resolve problems.

Collectivist culture
a culture that places high value on group image, group esteem, group reliance, group awareness, and achievement of the group.

Communication interactions
verbal and nonverbal exchanges that take place during interviews.

Comparison tactic
a person points out a few similarities between two places, people, or things and then draws conclusions from this superficial comparison.

Competitive rater
an interviewer who believes that no one can perform higher than his or her level of performance.

to complete, support, or repeat.

when an interviewee follows assessments and courses of action agreed to during a counseling interview.

positive and negative meanings of words.

Conscious transparency
sharing information with applicants, explaining the purpose of questions, providing a supportive climate, and promoting unrestricted dialogue between interview parties.

the effort to establish a substantial sameness or similarity between interviewer and interviewee.

Contrast principle
if a second item or choice is fairly different from the first, it seems more different than it actually is.

an unstructured interaction between two or more people with no predetermined purpose other than enjoyment of the process.

those who help interviewees to gain insights into and to cope with problems.

Counter persuasion
persuasion aimed at an interviewee by a persuader's competitor or antagonist following a persuasive interview.

Cover letter
a letter an applicant sends to a prospective employer that expresses interest in and qualifications for a position.

Critical incident question
a question that asks applicants how they might resolve a current problem the recruiter's organization is facing.

Cross-sectional study
a study that determines what is known, thought, or felt during a narrow time span.

shared customs, norms, knowledge, attitudes, values, and traits of a racial, religious, social, or corporate group.

Curious probe
a question that is irrelevant to the interviewer's stated purpose.

Deceptively complex interpersonal communication process
the assumption that one-to-one communication is simple is belied by the many variables that interact in this process.

Defensive climate
a climate that appears threatening to one or both parties in an interview.

Determinate interviews
an interview designed to determine whether or not to make a job offer to an applicant.

Developmental model
the performance interview is initiated by individuals when needed, subordinate-conducted and directed, now and future oriented, cooperative, and self-satisfying.

Dialogic listening
a means of focusing on ours rather than mine or yours to resolve a problem or task.

an attempt through language to alter how a person sees reality by renaming it.

Directive approach
an interview in which the interviewer controls subject matter, length of answers, climate, and formality.

Directive reactions
when an interviewer reacts to a client with specific evaluations and advice.

the willingness and ability to reveal feelings, beliefs, attitudes, and information to another party.

Don't ask, don't tell
a question that delves into information or an emotional area that a respondent may be incapable of addressing because of social, psychological, or situational constraints.

Double-barreled inquisition
a question that contains two or more questions.

Downward communication
an interview in which a superior in the organizational hierarchy is attempting to interact as an interviewer with a subordinate in the hierarchy.

an interaction that involves two distinct parties.

EEO violation question pitfall
when an interviewer asks an unlawful question during a recruiting interview.

Electronic interviews
interviews conducted over the telephone, through conference calls, by video talk-back, or over the Internet.

Electronically scanned resume
a resume designed in format and wording to be scanned electronically by recruiters.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
the agency assigned the task of overseeing and carrying out EEO laws.

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws
laws that pertain to employment and performance review interviews.

Ethical issues
issues that focus on value judgments concerning degrees of right and wrong, goodness and badness, in human conduct.

the substitution of a better sounding word for a common one.

Evaluative interval scales
questions that ask respondents to make judgments about persons, places, things, or ideas.

Evaluative response question pitfall
when an interviewer expresses judgmental feelings about an answer that may bias or skew the next answer.

Evasive interviewee
an interviewee who evades questions and gives indirect answers.

examples, stories, comparisons, testimony, and statistics that support a claim being made.

a sharing of roles, responsibilities, feelings, beliefs, motives, and information during an interview.

Expressed feelings
feelings an interviewee expresses overtly and openly during a counseling interaction.

Failed departure
when an interview has come to a close and parties have taken leave of one another only to come in contact accidentally later, often with a degree of communicative awkwardness.

False assumptions
assuming incorrectly that something is true or false, intended or unintended, exists or does not exist, desired or undesired, will or will not happen.

False closing
when verbal and nonverbal messages signal the closing of the interview is commencing but a party introduces a new topic or issue.

verbal and nonverbal reactions of an interview party.

emotions such as pride, fear, love, anger, and sympathy.

Fee-paid positions
when an organization retains a placement agency to locate qualified applicants and pays fees the agency would normally charge applicants.

Filter strategy
a question strategy that enables the interviewer to determine an interviewee's knowledge of a topic.

First impression
the initial impression one makes on another as a result of appearance, dress, manner, and quality of communication.

the ability to adapt during interviews to unexpected exchanges, answers, information, or attitudes.

Force choice distribution model
a performance review model that ranks employees into three or four groups for reward, improvement, or termination.

Frequency interval scales
questions that ask respondents to select a number that most accurately reflects how often they do or use something.

Functional resume format
a resume in which an applicant places experiences under headings that highlight qualifications for a position.

Funnel sequence
a question sequence that begins with a broad, open-ended question and proceeds with ever-more restricted questions.

Generic message
a persuasive message designed for a variety of audiences rather than a specific targeted audience.

Global relationships
relationships between parties from different countries and cultures.

Goal oriented
an interaction in which the interviewer is goal or task oriented rather than people oriented.

Ground rules
rules governing an interview agreed to by both parties.

Group interview
an interview in which there are multiple interviewers, such as several journalists at a press conference.

Guessing game
when a questioner attempts to guess information instead of asking for it.

Halo effect
when an interviewer gives favorable ratings to all job duties when an interviewee excels in only one.

Hasty generalization tactic
a person generalizes to a whole group of people, places, or things from only one or a few examples.

Highly closed questions
questions that can be answered with a single word or short phrase, most often a yes or no.

Highly directed reactions and responses
when an interviewer offers ultimatums and strong advice.

Highly nondirective reactions and responses
when an interviewer offers no information, assistance, or evaluations but encourages the interviewee to communicate, analyze, and be self-reliant.

Highly scheduled interview
a schedule in which the interviewer prepares all questions and their exact wording prior to an interview.

Highly scheduled standardized interview
a schedule in which the interviewer prepares all questions and their exact wording as well as answer options prior to an interview.

Historical critical incident question
a question that asks applicants how they would have resolved a problem the recruiter's organization faced in the past.

Honesty tests
tests designed to assess the ethics, honesty, and integrity of job applicants.

Hypothetical question
a hypothetical but realistic question that asks respondents how they would handle a situation or problem.

Identification theory
a theory that persons persuade others by identifying with them in a variety of ways.

creating pictures or images in a person's mind through highly descriptive language.

Implicative approach
an approach that withholds an explicit statement of purpose or intent until the interviewee sees the implications and suggests a course of action.

Individualist culture
a culture that places high value on self-image, self-esteem, self-reliance, selfawareness, and individual achievement.

Induced compliance theory
a theory designed to change thinking, feeling, or acting by inducing others to engage in activities counter to their values, beliefs, or attitudes.

to provide information or knowledge to another party.

stories, illustrations, comparisons, experiences, quotations, statistics, definitions, and explanations that apprise interview parties of problems, solutions, situations, and events.

Informational probe
a question designed to obtain additional information when an answer appears to be superficial, vague, or ambiguous or to suggest a feeling or attitude.

Information gathering interviews
interviews designed to obtain facts, opinions, data, feelings, attitudes, beliefs, reactions, advice, or feedback.

Information giving interview
interviews designed to exchange data, knowledge, direction, instructions, orientation, clarification, or warnings.

Information overload
when interviewees are provided with more information than they can process or recall.

Initiating the interview
the process by which an interview is arranged and started.

Inoculation theory
a theory based on the belief that it is often more effective to prevent undesired persuasion from occurring than trying damage control afterward.

Integrity interviews
interviews designed to assess the honesty and integrity of prospective employees.

Intelligent or educated interviewee
an interviewee with high levels of intelligence or informal and formal education.

the exchanging or sharing of roles, responsibilities, feelings, beliefs, motives, and information.

Interpersonal communication process
a complex and often puzzling communication interaction with another party.

Interval scales
survey question scales that provide distances between measures.

an interactional communication process between two parties, at least one of whom has a predetermined and serious purpose, and involves the asking and answering of questions.

Interview evaluation
the formal or informal process of evaluating applicants following recruiting interviews.

Interview guide
a carefully structured outline of topics and subtopics to be covered during an interview.

Interview schedule
a list of questions an interviewer prepares prior to an interview.

the party who is not in basic control of the interaction, such as a respondent in a survey interview or an applicant in a recruiting interview.

Interviewer bias
when respondents give answers they feel questioners want them to give rather than express their true feelings, attitudes, or beliefs.

Inverted funnel sequence
a sequence that begins with closed questions and proceeds toward open questions.

words that organizations or groups alter or create for specialized use.

Job fairs
gatherings of recruiters from a variety of organizations on college campuses or malls in which applicants can obtain information, make contacts, and take part in interviews.

Joblike situations
simulated job situations through questions or role playing that enable the recruiter to perceive how an applicant might act on the job.

Journalist's interview guide
a guide that focuses on who, what, when, where, how, and why.

Just cause
the fair and equitable treatment of each employee in a job class.

Key informant
a person who can supply information on situations, assist in selecting interviewees, and aid in securing interviewee cooperation.

Knowledge workers
workers that create and access information rather than manufacture products and are valued for their knowledge, ability to motivate others, and team work.

Law of recency
people tend to recall the last thing said or done in interviews.

Lay counselor
a person with little or no formal training in counseling.

Lay theories
commonsense theories patients hold about health care that often resist scientific notions and research findings.

Leading push
a question that suggests how a person should respond.

Leading question
a question that suggests implicitly or explicitly the expected or desired answer.

Leaning question strategy
a question strategy that enables interviewers to reduce the number of undecided and "don't know" responses in surveys.

Learning organization
an organization that places high value on knowledge, skills, competencies, opportunities for learning, and employees as intellectual capital.

the effort to bring an interview to a close.

Length of service error
when an interviewer assumes that present performance is high because past performance was high.

Letters of recommendation
letters sent by references to prospective employers on behalf of persons applying for specific positions.

Level 1 interactions
interactions that are relatively safe and nonthreatening.

Level 2 interactions
interactions that require a moderate degree of trust and may be moderately threatening because of exchange of beliefs, attitudes, values, and positions on issues.

Level 3 interactions
interactions that require a great deal of trust because parties disclose fully their feelings, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions on intimate and controversial topics.

Level of confidence
the mathematical probability that the survey is within an accepted margin of error.

Level of information
the amount and sophistication of information an interviewee has to offer.

Likert scale
interval scale questions that ask respondents to make judgments about persons, places, things, or ideas.

the deliberate process of receiving, understanding, evaluating, and retaining what is seen and heard.

Listening for comprehension
receiving, understanding, and remembering messages as accurately as possible.

Listening for empathy
a method of communicating an attitude of genuine concern, understanding, and involvement.

Listening for evaluation
a means of judging what is heard and observed.

Listening for resolution
a means of mutually resolving a problem or task.

Loaded question
a question with strong direction or dictation of the answer desired through the use of name calling or emotionally charged words.

Longitudinal study
a study to determine trends in what is known, thought, or felt over a period of time.

Loose rater
an interviewer who is reluctant to point out weak areas and dwells on the average or better areas of performance.

Management by objectives (MBO) model
a performance review model that involves a manager and a subordinate in a mutual (50-50) setting of results-oriented goals rather than activities to be performed.

Margin of error
the degree of similarity between sample results and the results from a 100 percent count obtained in an identical manner.

Matching process
the process of matching an applicant with a specific position and organization.

Mirror probe
a question that summarizes a series of answers to ensure accurate understanding and retention.

Moderately scheduled interview
a schedule in which the interviewer prepares all major questions with possible probing questions under each prior to an interview.

values such as security, belonging, freedom, ambition, and preservation of health.

Multisource feedback
feedback from a number of sources.

Mutual product
the results of interviews depend upon the contributions of both parties

the labeling of people, places, or things to make them appear different, to alter perceptions of reality.

Negative face
the desire to be free of imposition or intrusion.

Negative politeness
an effort to protect another person when negative face needs are threatened.

Negative selling
the attempt to persuade by attacking another or another's proposal rather than supporting yourself or your proposal.

Network tree
a listing of names, addresses, and telephone numbers of primary contacts who can provide leads for job openings and additional contacts.

creating a list of contacts for possible employment positions.

Neutral question
a question that allows a respondent to determine an answer with no overt direction or pressure from the questioner.

any effort to remove an obstacle to making a favorable impression or attaining a position, including recruiter questions that violate EEO laws.

anything that may interfere with the communication process, such as machinery, ringing telephones, doors opening and closing, others talking, traffic, and music.

Nominal scales
questions that provide mutually exclusive variables and ask respondents to pick or name the most appropriate.

Nondirective approach
an interview in which the interviewee controls subject matter, length of answers, climate, and formality.

Nondirective reaction
when an interviewer reacts to a client without giving advice or specific direction.

Nonscheduled interview
an interview guide of topic and subtopics with no prepared questions prior to an interview.

Nonverbal closing actions
nonverbal actions that signal a closing is commencing, such as leaning forward, uncrossing legs, breaking eye contact, and offering to shake hands.

Nonverbal communication
nonverbal signals such as physical appearance, dress, eye contact, voice, touches, head nods, hand shakes, and posture.

Nonverbal interactions
nonverbal signals such as physical appearance, dress, eye contact, voice, touches, head nods, hand shakes, and posture.

Nudging probe
a word or brief phrase that urges a respondent to continue answering.

Numerical interview scales
questions that ask respondents to select a range or level that accurately reflects an age, income level, educational level, and so on.

paying close attention to surroundings, people, dress, appearance, and nonverbal communication.

Off the record
information that cannot be reported following an interview.

Open question
a question that allows the respondent considerable freedom in determining the amount and kind of information to offer.

Open-to-closed switch
when a questioner asks an open question but changes it to a closed question before a respondent can reply.

the first minutes of an interview in which the interviewer attempts to establish rapport and orient the interviewee.

Opening question
the initial question during the body of an interview.

Opening techniques
verbal and nonverbal signals that establish rapport and orient the interviewee.

Order bias
possible influence on how interviewees respond due to the order of answer options in survey questions.

Ordinal scales
questions that ask respondents to rate or rank options in their implied relationship to one another.

the portion of the opening in which the interviewer explains the purpose, length, and nature of the interview.

Outside forces
influential others such as family, friends, employers, and agencies who are not part of the interview but may affect one or both parties before, during, or after an interview.

Overt identification
an attempt to establish a "we are one and the same" perception.

Panel interview
when two to five persons representing an organization may interview an applicant at the same time.

Paper trail
written materials that allow the tracing of an individual or organization's actions or opinions.

the interviewer or interviewee side in an interview.

Patient-centered care (PCC)
when a patient's needs, preferences, and beliefs are respected at all times.

Percentage agencies
placement agencies whose fee for finding positions for clients is a specific percentage of the first year's salary.

the ways people see and interpret themselves, other people, places, things, events, and nonverbal signals.

Person-product-service model
a performance review model based on the theory that managerial competencies lead to effective behaviors that lead to effective worker performance.

Personality tests
tests designed to assess the people skills of applicants.

interviewers who attempt to alter the ways interviewees think, feel, and/or act.

Persuasive interviews
an interview designed to change an interviewee's way of thinking, feeling, and/or acting.

Pitchfork effect
when an interviewer gives negative ratings to all facets of performance because of a particular trait the interviewer dislikes in others.

Placement agency
an agency that provides services such as career counseling, resume preparation, employer contacts, and interview opportunities for those seeking positions.

Placement interviews
interviews designed to assign employees to positions or to move them from one position or location to another.

the attempt to limit choices or positions to polar opposites.

Politeness theory
a theory that claims all humans want to be appreciated, approved, liked, honored, and protected.

all persons able and qualified to respond in a particular survey.

a small and varied collection of an applicant's best work.

Positive attention
attention that generates recruiter interest in an applicant.

Positive face
the desire to be appreciated, approved, liked, and honored.

Positive politeness
an effort to show concern by complimenting and using respectful forms of address.

Post hoc or scrambling cause-effect tactic
basing a cause-effect relationship on coincidence, a minor cause, or a single cause.

Power speech
words that express certainty, challenges, verbal aggression, and metaphors.

Powerless speech
words and nonfluencies that express apologies, disclaimers, excuses, and uncertainty.

Precision journalism
journalistic reports based on survey research data.

planned in advance of an interaction.

Press conference
a setting in which multiple interviewers interview one interviewee.

the test of an interview schedule with a small sample of respondents prior to a survey to detect possible problems that might result during the survey.

Primary question
a question that introduces a topic or new area within a topic and can stand alone out of context.

the attempt to discover additional information and understanding.

Probing question
a question that attempts to discover additional information following a primary or secondary question and cannot stand alone out of context.

Problems of the interviewee's behavior interviews
interviews designed to review, separate, correct, or counsel interviewees for their behavior.

Problems of the interviewer's behavior interviews
interviews designed to receive complaints, grievances, or suggestions concerning the interviewer's behavior.

Problem-solution sequence
an outline divided into problem and solution phases.

Problem-solving interviews
interviews designed to discuss mutually shared problems, receive suggestions for solutions, or implement solutions.

a dynamic, continuing, ever changing interaction of variables.

the physical distance between interview parties.

Psychological reactance theory
a theory based on the claim that people react negatively when someone threatens to restrict or does restrict a behavior they want to engage in.

the reason or goal for a party conducting or taking part in an interview.

any statement or nonverbal act that invites an answer.

Question pitfall
a slight alteration of questions, often unintentional, that changes them from open to closed, primary to secondary, and neutral to leading.

Question sequence
the strategic interconnection of questions.

Quintamensional design sequence
a five-step sequence designed to assess the intensity of a respondent's opinions and attitudes.

Quiz show pitfall
a question above or beneath the respondent's level of knowledge.

Random sampling
selecting respondents randomly from a container, a list or group.

Ranking ordinal scale
questions that ask respondents to rank options in their implied relationship to one another.

a process of establishing and sustaining a relationship by creating feelings of goodwill and trust.

Rating ordinal scale
questions that ask respondents to rate options in their implied relationship to one another.

Real setting
an interview setting with all of its defects and problems.

Reasoning from accepted belief, assumption, or proposition
reasoning based on the assertion that a belief, assumption, or proposition is true and without question.

Reasoning from analogy
reasoning based on points of similarity that two people, places, or things have in common.

Reasoning from cause-effect
reasoning based on a causal relationship.

Reasoning from condition
reasoning based on the assertion that if something does or does not happen something else will or will not happen.

Reasoning from example
reasoning based on a generalization about a whole class of people, places, or things from a sampling of the class.

Reasoning from facts
reasoning that offers a conclusion as the best explanation for available evidence.

Reasoning from sign
a claim that two or more variables are related so the presence or absence of one indicates the presence or absence of the other.

Reasoning from two choices
reasoning based on the assertion that there are only two possible choices.

the ability of an interview party to remember and report accurately what took place during an interview, including agreements, information exchanged, attitudes, and climate.

Recency error
when an interviewer relies too heavily on the most recent events or performance levels.

Reciprocal concessions
the effort to instill a sense of obligation in another to make a concession after the other party has made one.

taking mental or physical note of what is taking place during an interview.

names of persons applicants give to prospective employers who can provide assessments of their qualifications for positions.

Reflective probe
a question that reflects the answer received to verify or clarify what the respondent intended to say.

Rejection then retreat
the effort to exaggerate a first proposal just enough to make a second appear more acceptable.

an interpersonal connection between two parties or persons.

Relational dimensions
critical dimensions such as similarity, inclusion, affection, and trust that determine the nature of relationships.

Relational distance
the closeness of the relationship between interview parties.

Relational history
the past, present, and future connections between two parties or persons.

Relational uncertainty
when either party is unaware of the degree of warmth, sharing of control, or level of trust that will exist during an interview.

an interpersonal connection between parties that influences their interest in the outcome of the interview.

the assurance that the same information can be collected in repeated interviews.

Repeat question strategy
a question strategy that enables the interviewer to determine interviewee consistency in responses on a topic.

the ability to duplicate interviews regardless of interviewers, interviewees, and situations.

a formal or informal recording of the information attained during an interview.

the ability to duplicate interviews regardless of interviewer, interviewee, and situation.

a careful search for background materials, information, facts, and theories pertaining to a subject, person, or organization.

Restatement probe
a question that restates all or part of the original question that remains unanswered.

a brief accounting of an applicant's career goal, education, training, and experiences.

Resume or application form question pitfall
asking a question that is already answered on the resume or application form.

Reticent interviewee
an interviewee who seems unwilling or unable to talk and respond freely.

Rule of reciprocation
instills in an interviewee a sense of obligation to repay in kind what another provides.

Sample point or block sampling
preassigned numbers and types of respondents are chosen from assigned geographical areas.

Sample size
the number of persons interviewed during a survey when the whole population is too large to interview.

Sanitized setting
an interview setting without time constraints, interviewee problems, or situational problems such as noise, interruptions, inappropriate seating, or uncomfortable temperatures.

Screening interviews
interviews designed to select applicants for additional interviews.

Secondary question
a question that attempts to discover additional information following a primary or secondary (probing) question and cannot stand alone out of context.

focus of the interviewee on the interviewee during a counseling interview.

a careful, thorough, and insightful analysis of self an applicant conducts prior to taking part in interviews.

how a person perceives self physically, socially, and psychologically.

the willingness and ability to disclose information pertaining to oneself.

positive and negative feelings a person has of self.

Self-evident truth
a claim that a question or issue is not arguable because it is settled by rule or fact.

Self-fulfilling prophecy
a prediction that comes true because a person expects or predicts it will be so.

how, what, and with whom people identify themselves.

a situation in which a persuader encourages a person to persuade self rather than being persuaded by another.

respondents alone determine if they will be included in a survey sample.

Seminar format
an interview format in which one or more recruiters interview several applicants at the same time.

Sequential phase model
a counseling model that centers on four phases based on affective (emotional) and cognitive (thinking) functions.

the genders of interview parties.

Shock-absorber phrases
phrases that reduce the sting of critical questions.

Shuffle strategy
a question strategy that enables interviewers to avoid responses based on the order rather than the content of answer options.

the absence of vocal communication from one or both parties in an interview.

Silent probe
an interviewer remains silent after an answer and may use nonverbal signals to encourage the respondent to continue answering.

characteristics, experiences, interests, beliefs, attitudes, values, and expectations interview parties have in common.

a total interview context that includes events prior to and after, time, place, and surroundings.

Situational schema
a schema that includes all of the different types of interviews.

Skip interval or random digit sample
a sampling method in which every predetermined number on a list is selected, such as every 10th name in a directory.

unofficial jargon that groups use.

Slogan or tabloid thinking
a clever phrase that encapsulates a position, stand, or goal of a persuader.

words that sound alike but have different meanings.

Space sequence
an outline that arranges topics and subtopics according to spatial divisions such as left to right, north to south.

Standard/learned principle
principles people learn through life that automatically guide actions and decisions.

Status difference
the difference in social or organizational hierarchy between interviewer and interviewee.

Strategic ambiguities
the strategic use of words with multiple or vague meanings to avoid specific definitions or explanations.

Strategic answers
when interviewees answer questions to their advantage.

Stratified random sampling
a sampling method that selects the number of respondents according to their percentages in the target population.

a predetermined arrangement of parts or stages into a meaningful whole.

Supportive climate
a climate in which there is trust and respect between parties.

a degree of structure or organization that guides a planned interaction between two parties.

Table of random numbers
a sample of respondents selected by assigning each respondent a number and using a table of random numbers for picking a sample.

Talkative interviewee
an interviewee who gives overly long answers and talks too freely.

Task oriented
an interviewer who is more concerned with performing a task efficiently and effectively than in communicating effectively with an interviewee.

Team interview
when two to five persons representing an organization may interview an applicant at the same time.

the physical and psychological space in which an interview takes place.

Test of job relatedness
effort to meet EEO laws by establishing legally defensible selection criteria, asking questions related to these criteria, asking the same questions of all applicants, being cautious when probing into answers, being cautious during informal chit-chat, focusing questions on what applicants can do, and steering applicants away from volunteering unlawful information.

The 360-degree approach
a performance review model that obtains as many views of a person's performance as possible from observers who interact with the person on a regular basis.

Thin entering wedge (domino effect or slippery slope) tactic
an argument that one decision, action, or law after another is leading toward some sort of danger.

Tight rater
an interviewer who believes that no one can perform at the necessary standards.

Time sequence
an outline that treats topics and subtopics in chronological order.

Tongue-in-cheek test response
a pleasant, perhaps humorous response that sends a signal to a recruiter that he or she has asked an unlawful question.

Topical sequence
an outline sequence that follows the natural divisions of a topic or subtopic.

Traditional recruiter questions
common questions generations of recruiters have asked, such as where do you plan to be five years from now.

Transfer interviews
interviews designed to promote employees, to assign them to positions, or to move them from one position or location to another.

Transferring guilt
an effort to dodge an issue by turning the accuser, victim, or questioner into the guilty party.

Trial closing
the attempt to determine if an interviewee is ready to close an interview with an agreement of some sort.

Tunnel sequence
a series of similar questions that are either open or closed.

Tu quoque
an effort to dodge an issue or objection by revolving it upon the challenger or questioner.

Two parties
an interviewer and an interviewee party consisting of one or more persons with distinct roles and purposes such as getting and giving information, counseling and being counseled, persuading and being persuaded, recruiting and being recruited.

Unipolar question
a question that has only one obvious or desired answer.

Universal performance interviewing model
a performance review that focuses on coaching by starting with positive behavior a manager wants the employee to maintain and then moving to behaviors that need to be corrected.

Unsanitized setting
a real world interview setting with all of its problems, crises, interruptions, and unexpected happenings.

Upward communication
an interview in which a subordinate in an organizational hierarchy is attempting to interact as interviewer with a superior in the hierarchy.

fundamental beliefs about ideal states of existence and modes of behavior.

Verbal interactions
words (arbitrary connections of letters) that serve as symbols for people, places, things, events, beliefs, and feelings.

Yes (no) response
a question that has only one obvious answer.

Yes-but approach
an approach that begins with areas of agreement and approaches points of disagreements after goodwill and a supportive climate are established.

Yes-yes approach
the attempt to get another party in the habit of saying yes so agreements may continue.