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Glossary Terms (G - L)
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gait (20.0K)  The way a person walks, consisting of two phases: stance and swing.
ganglia (24.0K)  Collections of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
gastic juice (34.0K)  Secretions from the stomach lining that begin the process of digesting protein.
gastritis (21.0K)  Inflammation of the stomach lining.
gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD (100.0K)  A condition that occurs when stomach acids are pushed into the esophagus and cause heartburn.
gene (14.0K)  A segment of DNA that determines a body trait.
general physical examination (55.0K)  An examination performed by a physician to confirm a patient's health or to diagnose a medical problem.
generic name (28.0K)  A drug's official name.
giantism (21.0K)  A condition in which too much growth hormone is produced in childhood, resulting in an abnormally increased stature
gingival (15.0K)  The gum line.
glans penis (28.0K)  A coneshaped structure at the end of the penis.
glaucoma (19.0K)  A condition in which too much pressure is created in the eye by excessive aqueous humor. This excess pressure can lead to permanent damage of the optic nerves, resulting in blindness.
globulins (22.0K)  Plasma proteins that transport lipids and some vitamins.
glomerular capsule (27.0K)  A capsule that surrounds the glomerulus of the kidney.
glomerular filtrate (37.0K)  The fluid remaining in the glomerular capsule after glomerular filtration.
glomerular filtration (45.0K)  The process by which urine forms in the kidneys as blood moves through a tight ball of capillaries called the glomerulus.
glomerulonephritis (44.0K)  An inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
glomerulus (22.0K)  A group of capillaries in the renal corpuscle.
glottis (16.0K)  The opening between the vocal cords.
glucagon (16.0K)  A hormone that increases glucose concentrations in the bloodstream and slows down protein synthesis.
glycogen (25.0K)  An excess of glucose that is stored in the liver and in skeletal muscle.
glycosuria (19.0K)  The presence of significant levels of glucose in the urine.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (56.0K)  Hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
gonads (24.0K)  The reproductive organs; namely, in women, the ovaries,and in men, the testes.
goniometer (21.0K)  A protractor device that measures range of motion.
gout (25.0K)  A medical condition characterized by an elevated uric acid level and recurrent acute arthritis.
G-protein (32.0K)  A substance that causes enzymes in the cell to activate following the activation of the hormone-receptor complex in the cell membrane.
gram-negative (24.0K)  Referring to bacteria that lose their purple color when a decolorizer has been added during a Gram's stain.
gram-positive (28.0K)  Referring to bacteria that retain their purple color after a decolorizer has been added during a Gram's stain.
Grams stain (28.0K)  A method of staining that differentiates bacteria according to the chemical composition of their cell walls.
granular leukocyte (32.0K)  A type of leukocyte (white blood cell) with a segmented nucleus and granulated cytoplasm; also known as a polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
granulocyte (40.0K)  See granular leukocyte.
Graves disease (29.0K)  A disorder in which a person develops antibodies that attack the thyroid gland.
gray matter (20.0K)  The inner tissue of the brain and the spinal cord that is darker in color than white matter. It contains all the bodies and dendrites of nerve cells.
growth hormone (30.0K)  A hormone that stimulates an increase in the size of the muscles and bones of the body.
gustatory receptors (43.0K)  Taste receptors that are found on taste buds.
gyri (30.0K)  The ridges of brain matter between the sulci; also called convolutions.
hairy leukoplakia (39.0K)  A white lesion on the tongue associated with AIDS.
hapten (28.0K)  Foreign substances in the body too small to start an immune response by hemselves.
hard copy (24.0K)  A readable paper copy or printout of information.
hardware (32.0K)  The physical components of a computer system,including the monitor, keyboard, and printer.
hazard label (23.0K)  A shortened version of the Material Safety Data Sheet; permanently affixed to a hazardous substance container.
helper T cell (25.0K)  White blood cells that are a key component of the body's immune system and that work in coordination with other white blood cells to combat infection.
hematemesis (31.0K)  The vomiting of blood.
hematocrit (23.0K)  The percentage of the volume of a sample made up of red blood cells after the sample has been spun in a centrifuge.
hematology (26.0K)  The study of blood.
hematoma (20.0K)  A swelling caused by blood under the skin.
hematuria (23.0K)  The presence of blood in the urine.
hemocytoblast (41.0K)  Cells of the red bone marrow that produce most red blood cells.
hemocytometer (31.0K)  A special microscope slide that allows blood cells to be counted when a diluted blood sample is examined under the microscope.
hemoglobin (20.0K)  A protein that contains iron and bonds with and carries oxygen to cells; the main component of erythrocytes.
hemoglobinuria (23.0K)  The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine; a rare condition caused by transfusion reactions, malaria, drug reactions, snakebites, or severe burns.
hemolysis (25.0K)  The rupturing of red blood cells, which releases hemoglobin.
hemorrhoids (16.0K)  Varicose veins of the rectum or anus.
hemostasis (24.0K)  The stoppage of bleeding.
hepatic duct (28.0K)  A duct that leaves the liver carrying bile and merges with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
hepatic lobule (19.0K)  Smaller divisions within the lobes of the liver.
hepatic portal system (48.0K)  The collection of veins carrying blood to the liver.
hepatic portal vein (46.0K)  A blood vessel that carries blood from the other digestive organs to the hepatic lobules.
hepatitis (21.0K)  Inflammation of the liver usually caused by viruses or toxins.
hepatocytes (27.0K)  The cells within the lobules of the liver. Hepatocytes process nutrients in the blood and make bile.
hernia (17.0K)  The protrusion of an organ through the wall that usually contains it, such as a hiatal oringuinal hernia.
herpes simplex (37.0K)  A medical condition characterized by an eruption of one or more groups of vesicles on the lips or genitalia.
herpes zoster (24.0K)  A medical condition characterized by an eruption of a group of vesicles on one side of the body following a nerve root.
hilum (20.0K)  The indented side of a lymph node. The entrance of the renal sinus that contains the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter.
Holter monitor (24.0K)  An electrocardiography device that includes a small portable cassette recorder worn around a patient's waist or on a shoulder strap to record the heart's electrical activity.
homologous chromosome (31.0K)  Members in each pair of chromosomes.
human immunodeficiency virus HIV (60.0K)  A retrovirus that gradually destroys the body's immune system and causes AIDS.
humerus (21.0K)  The bone of the upper arm.
humors (34.0K)  Fluids of the body.
hydrotherapy (22.0K)  The therapeutic use of water to treat physical problems.
hyoid (30.0K)  The bone that anchors the tongue.
hyperextension (38.0K)  Extension of a body part past the normal anatomical position.
hyperopia (29.0K)  A condition that occurs when light entering the eye is focused behind the retina; commonly called farsightedness.
hyperpnea (24.0K)  Abnormally deep, rapid breathing.
hyperreflexia (24.0K)  Reflexes that are stronger than normal reflexes.
hypertension (34.0K)  High blood pressure.
hyperventilation (24.0K)  The condition of breathing rapidly and deeply. Hyperventilating decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
hypodermis (31.0K)  The subcutaneous layer of the skin that is largely made of adipose tissue.
hypoglycemia (25.0K)  Low blood sugar.
hyporeflexia (46.0K)  A condition of decreased reflexes.
hypotension (27.0K)  Low blood pressure.
hypothalamus (26.0K)  It maintains homeostasis by egulating many vital activities such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. A region of the diencephalon.
hypovolemic shock (34.0K)  A state of shock resulting from insufficient blood volume in the circulatory system.
hysterectomy (23.0K)  Surgical removal of the uterus.
Icon (22.0K)  A pictorial image; on a computer screen, a graphic symbol that identifies a menu choice.
identification line (32.0K)  A line at the bottom of a letter containing the letter writer's initials and the typist's initials.
ileum (17.0K)  The last portion of the small intestine. It is directly attached to the large intestine.
ilium (15.0K)  The most superior part of the hip bone. It is broad and flaring.
immunocompromised (37.0K)  Having an impaired or weakened immune system.
immunofluorescent assay IFA test (67.0K)  A blood test used to confirm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test results for HIV infection.
immunoglobulins (43.0K)  A class of structurally related proteins that include IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE; also called antibodies.
impetigo (24.0K)  A contagious skin infection usually caused by germs commonly called staph and strep.
impotence (19.0K)  A disorder in which a male cannot maintain an erect penis to complete sexual intercourse; also called erectile dysfunction.
incision (18.0K)  A surgical wound made by cutting into body tissue.
incisors (27.0K)  The most medial teeth. They act as chisels to bite off food.
incomplete protein (35.0K)  Proteins that lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
incontinence (22.0K)  The involuntary leakage of urine.
indication (20.0K)  The purpose or reason for using a drug, as approved by the FDA.
induration (22.0K)  The process of hardening or of becomming hard.
infection (21.0K)  The presence of a pathogen in or on the body.
inferior (20.0K)  Anatomical term meaning below or closer to the feet;also called caudal.
inflammation (25.0K)  The body's reaction when tissue becomes injured or infected. The four cardinal signs are redness, heat, pain, and swelling.
informed consent form (38.0K)  A form that verifies that a patient understands the offered treatment and its possible outcomes or side effects.
infundibulum (27.0K)  The funnel-like end of the uterine tube near an ovary. It catches the secondary oocyte as it leaves the ovary.
infusion (27.0K)  A slow drip,as of an intravenous solution into a vein.
ink-jet printer (41.0K)  A nonimpact printer that forms characters by using a series of dots created by tiny drops of ink.
inner cell mass (31.0K)  A group of cells in a blastocyte that gives rise to an embryo.
inorganic (29.0K)  Matter that generally does not contain carbon and hydrogen.
insertion (23.0K)  An attachment site of a skeletal muscle that moves when a muscle contracts.
inspection (25.0K)  The visual examination of the patient's entire body and overall appearance.
inspiration (32.0K)  The act of breathing in; also called inhalation.
insulin (23.0K)  A hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood by facilitating its entry into the cells.
intercalated disk (34.0K)  A disk that connects groups of cardiac muscles. This disc allows the fibers in that group to contract and relax together.
interferon (19.0K)  A protein that blocks viruses from infecting cells.
Internet (23.0K)  A global network of computers.
interneuron (37.0K)  A structure found only in the central nervous system that functions to link sensory and motor neurons together.
interstitial cell (43.0K)  A cell located between the seminiferous tubules that is responsible for making testosterone.
intestinal lipase (30.0K)  An enzyme that digests fat.
intradermal ID (29.0K)  Within the upper layers of the skin.
intradermal test (38.0K)  An allergy test in which dilute solutions of allergens are introduced into the skin of the inner forearm or upper back with a fine-gauge needle.
intramembranous (37.0K)  A type of ossification in which bones begin as tough fibrous membranes.
intramuscular IM (42.0K)  Within muscle; an IM injection allows administration of a larger amount of a drug than a subcutaneous injectionallows.
intraoperative (33.0K)  Taking place during surgery.
intravenous IV (31.0K)  Injected directly into a vein.
intravenous pyelography IVP (63.0K)  A radiologic procedure in which the doctor injects a contrast medium into a vein and takes a series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to evaluate urinary system abnormalities or trauma to the urinary system; also known as excretory urography.
intrinsic factor (29.0K)  A substance secreted by parietal cells in the lining of the stomach. It is necessary for vitamin B12 absorption.
invasive (26.0K)  Referring to a procedure in which a catheter, wire, or other foreign object is introduced into a blood vessel or organ through the skin or a body orifice. Surgical asepsis is required during all invasive tests.
inventory (21.0K)  A list of supplies used regularly and the quantities in stock.
inversion (20.0K)  Turning the sole of the foot medially.
invoice (32.0K)  A bill for materials or services received by or services performed by the practice.
ions (30.0K)  Positively or negatively charged particles.
iris (16.0K)  The colored part of the eye, made of muscular tissue that contracts and relaxes, altering the size of the pupil.
ischium (18.0K)  A structure that forms the lower part of the hip bone.
islets of Langerhans (31.0K)  Structures in the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.
jaundice (20.0K)  A condition characterized by yellowness of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and excretions;occurs during the second stage of hepatitis infection.
jejunum (15.0K)  The mid-portion and the majority of the small intestine.
juxtaglomerular apparatus (54.0K)  A structure contained in the nephron and made up of the macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells.
juxtaglomerular cells (32.0K)  Enlarged smooth muscle cells in the walls of either the afferent or efferent arterioles.
Kaposis sarcoma (31.0K)  Abnormal tissue occurring in the skin, and sometimes in the lymph nodes and organs, manifested by reddishpurple to dark blue patches or spots on the skin.
keratin (24.0K)  A tough, hard protein contained in skin, hair, and nails.
keratinocyte (24.0K)  The most common cell type in the epidermis of the skin.
key (24.0K)  The act of inputting or entering information into a computer.
KOH mount (28.0K)  A type of mount used when a physician suspects a patient has a fungal infection of the skin, nails, or hair and to which potassium hydroxide is added to dissolve the keratin in cell walls.
Krebs cycle (28.0K)  Also called the citric acid cycle. This cycle generates ATP for muscle cells.
KUB radiography (42.0K)  The process of x-raying the abdomen to help assess the size, shape, and position of the urinary organs; evaluate urinary system diseases or disorders; or determine the presence of kidney stones. It can also be helpful in determining the position of an intrauterine device (IUD) or in locating foreign bodies in the digestive tract; also called a flat plate of the abdomen.
kyphosis (24.0K)  A deformity of the spine characterized by a bent-over position; more commonly called humpback.
labeling (23.0K)  Information provided with a drug, including FDAapproved indications and the form of the drug.
labia majora (37.0K)  The rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin that serve to protect the other female reproductive organs.
labia minora (26.0K)  The folds of skin between the labia majora.
laceration (19.0K)  A jagged, open wound in the skin that can extend down into the underlying tissue.
lacrimal apparatus (35.0K)  A structure that consists of the lacrimal glands and nasolacrimal ducts.
lacrimal gland (21.0K)  A gland in the eye that produces tears.
lactase (17.0K)  An enzyme that digests sugars.
lactic acid (23.0K)  Awaste product that must be released from the cell. It is produced when a cell is low on oxygen and converts pyruvic acid.
lactogen (24.0K)  Substance secreted by the placenta that stimulates the enlargement of the mammary glands.
lacunae (30.0K)  Holes in the matrix of bone that hold osteocytes.
lag phase (25.0K)  The initial phase of wound healing, in which bleeding is reduced as blood vessels in the affected area constrict.
lamella (16.0K)  Layers of bone surrounding the canals of osteons.
lancet (15.0K)  A small, disposable instrument with a sharp point used to puncture the skin and make a shallow incision; used for capillary puncture.
laryngopharynx (36.0K)  The portion of the pharynx behind the larynx.
larynx (20.0K)  The part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea that is responsible for voice production; also called the voice box.
laser printer (45.0K)  A highresolution printer that uses a technology similar to that of a photocopier. It is the fastest type of computer printer and produces the highest-quality output.
lead (19.0K)  A view of a specific area of the heart on an electrocardiogram.
letterhead (19.0K)  Formal business stationery, with the doctor's (or office's) name and address printed at the top, used for correspondence with patients, colleagues, and vendors.
leukemia (32.0K)  A medical condition in which bone marrow produces a large number of white blood cells that are not normal.
leukocyte (19.0K)  White blood cells.
leukocytosis (39.0K)  A white blood cell count that is above normal.
leukopenia (21.0K)  A white blood cell count that is below normal.
ligament (30.0K)  A tough, fibrous band of tissue that connects bone to bone.
ligature (19.0K)  Suture material.
lingual frenulum (24.0K)  A flap of mucosa that holds the body of the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity.
lingual tonsil (30.0K)  Two lumps of lymphatic tissue on the back of the tongue that act to destroy bacteria and viruses.
linoleic acid (26.0K)  An essential fatty acid found in corn and sunflower oils.
lipoprotein (34.0K)  Large molecules that are fat-soluble on the inside and water-soluble on the outside and carry lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides through the bloodstream.
lobe (16.0K)  The frontal, parietal, temporal, or occipital regions of the cerebral hemisphere.
loop of Henle (31.0K)  The portion of the renal tubule that curves back toward the renal corpuscle and twists again to become the distal convoluted tubule.
lumbar enlargement (44.0K)  The thickening of the spinal cord in the low back region.
lunula (32.0K)  The white halfmoon–shaped area at the base of a nail.
lupus (21.0K)  An autoimmune disorder in which a person produces antibodies that target their own cells and tissues.
luteinizing hormone LH (38.0K)  Hormone that in females stimulates ovulation and the production of estrogen; in males, it stimulates the production of testosterone.
lymphedema (21.0K)  The blockage of lymphatic vessels that results in the swelling of tissue from the accumulation of lymphatic fluid.
lymphocyte (38.0K)  An agranular leukocyte formed in lymphatic tissue. Lymphocytes are generally small. See T lymphocyte and Blymphocyte.
lysozyme (33.0K)  An enzyme in tears that destroys pathogens on the surface of the eye.

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