According to Chargaff's rule, the following proportion exists in DNA. A) C=G B) C»T C) C»G D) C=T
The actual synthesis of DNA in E. coli is the function of A) polymerase I B) primase C) polymerase III D) DNA ligase
The first nuclear transplant from an animal to an egg that produced a normal adult was performed on a A) frog B) sheep C) cat D) dog
All of the following were outcomes of Avery's experiment on "the active principle" except A) the array of the elements of purified principle agreed closely with DNA and the principle centrifuged to the same level as DNA. B) protein digesting enzymes did not affect the sample C) the extraction of lipids and proteins from the principle only slightly reduced its activity D) DNA-digesting enzyme, DNase, destroyed all transcription activity.
Polymerase III is actually a complex containing A) catalytic subunits B) proofreading subunits C) "sliding clamp" subunits D) All of the above
By convention, the sequence of bases in a nucleic acid is usually expressed in the _________ direction. A) 3' to 1' B) 3' to 5' C) 1' to 3' D) 5' to 3' E) clockwise
Since the first nucleotides cannot be linked in a newly synthesized strand in DNA replication, ___________ is required. A) a DNA primer B) DNA polymerase C) ligase D) an RNA primer E) helicase
The fact that some viruses use DNA to direct their heredity was demonstrated by A) finding radioactive sulfur from a bacteriophage in a bacterium. B) finding radioactive phosphorus from a bacterium in a bacteriophage. C) finding that radioactive phosphorus from a bacteriophage had mutated in bacterium. D) finding radioactive phosphorus from a bacteriophage in a bacterium. E) finding radioactive sulfur from a bacterium in a bacteriophage.
Okazaki fragments are used to elongate A) the leading strand toward the replication fork B) the lagging strand toward the replication fork C) both strands in both directions D) the leading strand away from the replication fork E) the lagging strand away from the replication fork
In nucleic acids, the free hydroxyl group is attached to the _______________ carbon of the sugar. A) 5' B) 4' C) 3' D) 2' E) 1'
A single enzyme is specified by a single A) chromosome B) gene C) nucleotide D) nucleosome E) histone
Hammerling chose Acetabularia as his model organism because it was A) large and differentiated B) easier to grow than fruit flies C) large and reproduced only asexually D) grown abundantly in the Mediterranean area where he lived E) large and contained only a few chromosomes
In DNA guanine always pairs with A) adenine B) cytosine C) guanine D) thymine E) uracil
With few exceptions, all nuclei of eukaryotes contain A) genes to specify the portion of the organism in which they are found B) all the information needed for growing the whole organism C) all of the chromosomes except sex chromosomes which are restricted to sex organs D) single stranded DNA E) only euchromatin except in the case of the Y-chromosome
In DNA, thymine always pairs with A) adenine B) cytosine C) guanine D) thymine E) uracil
Each individual zone of a chromosome replicates as a discrete section called A) telomere B) euchromatin C) Okazaki fragment D) replication unit E) linker DNA
DNA replication is called semiconservative because _______________ of the original duplex appears in the duplex formed in replication. A) none B) most C) half D) hardly any E) all
Each unit of a nucleic acid consisting of a sugar, attached phosphate group, and base is a A) nucleolus B) nucleotide C) nucleosome D) histone E) genetisome
In replication of DNA, the helix is opened and untwisted by A) ribase B) ligase C) deoxase D) helicase E) polymerase
In a nucleic acid, the bases are always attached to the _______________ carbon of the sugar. A) 5' B) 4' C) 3' D) 2' E) 1'
Although the work produced important results, Franklin's work was hindered by the lack of A) electricity B) strong x-rays C) true crystals of DNA D) thin layer chromatography E) precision instruments
The identification of the transforming principle proved that A) dead bacteria are as lethal as live ones B) Streptococcus pneumoniae evolved from Pneumococcus C) genetic information is contained in DNA D) there is no protein in chromosomes E) genetic information was transmitted by a polysaccharide
In nucleic acids, the phosphate group is attached to the _______________ carbon of the sugar. A) 5' B) 4' C) 3' D) 2' E) 1'
_______________ join DNA fragments to the lagging strand. A) Telomeres B) Centromeres C) Helicases D) Ligases E) Antiparallel strands
DNA polymerase catalyzes the elongation of a DNA strand in the 5'-->3' direction. A) True B) False
A DNA molecule has the same amount of adenine and thymine. A) True B) False
Which statement about the elongation of the lagging strand during DNA replication is correct? A) It is synthesized in a 3' --> 5' direction. B) It progresses (grows) toward the replication fork. C) It requires a short RNA primer to proceed. D) It is synthesized by DNA ligase. E) It is synthesized continuously.
An actively dividing bacterial culture is grown in a medium containing radioactive adenine (A*). After all the adenine is labeled, the bacteria are transferred to a medium containing nonradioactive adenine (A). Following one round of DNA replication in the nonradioactive medium, the DNA is analyzed. Which of the following sequences could represent this DNA? A) A* A* T T G A* T C T T A A C T A G B) A* A T T G A* T C T T A* A* C T A G C) A A T T G A T C T T A A C T A G D) A* A* T T G A* T C T T A* A* C T A* G
During semiconservative replication, the original double helix remains intact and a new double helix forms. A) True B) False
DNA polymerase uses a nucleoside triphosphate, bearing phosphates on the 5' carbon to form a phosphodiester linkage to the free 3' hydroxyl group on the end of the DNA strand it is synthesizing. A) True B) False
The elongation of Okazaki fragments during DNA synthesis progresses away from the replication fork. A) True B) False
DNA is made up of a phosphate group, an organic base, and: A) a protein B) a sugar C) a molecule of ATP D) a fat E) none of the above
In the DNA molecule: A) adenine pairs with thymine B) guanine pairs with thymine C) cytosine pairs with thymine D) adenine pairs with cytosine E) All of the above are possible.
If one side of a DNA molecule contains the following sequence of nucleotides, AGTCCG, the complementary sequence on the other side would be: A) GCCTGA B) AGTCCG C) TCAGGC D) CTGAAT E) none of the above
During your summer job at Virotech, you isolate a previously unknown virus. Analysis of its genome reveals that it is composed of a double stranded DNA molecule containing 14% T (thymine). Based on this information, what would you predict the %C (cytosine) to be? A) 14% B) 28% C) 36% D) 72% E) Cannot be determined from the information given.
The process of acquiring a gene from another organism is called transformation. A) True B) False
The Hershey-Chase experiment showed that the virus protein is responsible for directing the production of new viruses. A) True B) False
The two sides of the double helix structure of DNA are held together with hydrogen bonds. A) True B) False
DNA replication is called semiconservative because half of each of the two new strands of DNA is "old" DNA from the original DNA molecule and half is "new" DNA. A) True B) False