What feature makes both methane and carbon dioxide greenhouse gases?
|A)||Their bonds bend and stretch in response to infrared radiation.|
|B)||Their bonds break upon absorption of ultraviolet radiation.|
|C)||Their bonds rotate upon absorption of visible radiation.|
|D)||They act as catalysts when struck by microwave radiation.|
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported changes in the concentrations greenhouse gases from the pre-industrial era to the year 2000. The concentration of CO2 increased from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, N2O increased from 0.28 ppm to 0.31 ppm, and CH4 increased from 0.70 ppm to 1.8 ppm. Arrange the three gases in order of their percent increase in concentration.
|A)||CO2, CH4, N2O|
|B)||N2O, CO2, CH4|
|C)||CO2, N2O, CH4|
|D)||N2O, CH4, CO2|
The 1997 Kyoto Conference resulted in an agreement regarding emissions of greenhouse gasses. In this agreement,
|A)||all countries would be subject to the same percentage reduction in their emissions.|
|B)||only the underdeveloped countries would be subject to a reduction in their emissions.|
|C)||the United States would be exempt from any mandated reductions.|
|D)||the developed countries would have set goals for the percentage reduction of their emissions.|
The formula for wintergreen is C8H8O3. How many molecules are in 10.0 g of pure C8H8O3? (The molar mass of C8H8O3 is 152 g/mol.)
|A)||9.2 x 1025|
|B)||6.0 x 1024|
|C)||4.0 x 1022|
|D)||6.6 x 10-22|
Which country has the highest per capita CO2 emissions at this time?
Which two sources together account for more than half of all CO2 emissions in the United States?
|A)||industrial and transportation|
|B)||utilities and residential|
|C)||transportation and utilities|
|D)||commercial and residential|
Which do not affect climate modeling and predictions of global warming?
|A)||sunspots and solar flares|
|B)||meteorological factors like wind and clouds|
|C)||volcanoes and the dust that they generate|
|D)||All of these do have an effect.|
What is the molar mass of CO2?
Which process will help reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere?
I. increase clear cutting of forests
II. car pooling rather than driving individual cars
III. using more renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar power
IV. generating more electricity with nuclear power
|A)||I, III, and IV only|
|B)||I, II, and III only|
|C)||II, III, IV only|
|D)||I, II, III, IV|
The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere
|A)||has remained constant for the past century.|
|B)||is now approximately 385 ppm.|
|C)||is double what it was before the Industrial Revolution began (about 1860).|
|D)||plays no role in the average temperature of the Earth.|
Based on molecular structure, which of these atmospheric components cannot contribute to global warming?
What is happening at the wavelengths at which the graph dips down to the x-axis in this transmission spectrum of carbon dioxide?
|A)||These are regions of strong absorption.|
|B)||These are regions of strong transmission.|
|C)||These are regions of high concentration.|
|D)||These are regions of low concentration.|
Scientists have estimated the average global temperature over the last 160,000 years, based on ice core samples from Antarctica. What do they look at in these samples to make this estimation?
|A)||1H / 2H ratio|
The largest percentage of energy from the Sun comes to Earth in the form of
Which is a correct Lewis structure, shape, and bond angle for carbon dioxide?
|A)|| (3.0K) bent 120o|
|B)|| (3.0K) linear 180o|
|C)|| (3.0K) bent 120o|
|D)|| (3.0K) linear 180o|
The carbon cycle refers to the
|A)||mechanism by which CO2 causes global warming.|
|B)||movement of carbon through living organisms, the atmosphere, the sea, and the Earth.|
|C)||conversion of C6H12O2 (glucose) to CO2 in the process of photosynthesis.|
|D)||trapping of CO2 in deep ocean waters.|
What is the major source of the greenhouse gas methane, CH4?
|A)||agriculture, particularly cultivated rice paddies|
|B)||natural venting from volcanoes|
|C)||production of electricity by power utilities|
|D)||combustion of fossil fuels used for transportation|
Consider this information about two greenhouse gases, CH4 and N2O. Which statement is correct for CH4?
|A)||CH4 is a less effective greenhouse gas, and there is less of it in the troposphere.|
|B)||CH4 is a more effective greenhouse gas, and there is less of it in the troposphere.|
|C)||CH4 is a less effective greenhouse gas, and there is more of it in the troposphere.|
|D)||CH4 is a more effective greenhouse gas, and there is more of it in the troposphere.|
Which explanation accounts for the fact that, on average, cloudy nights are warmer than clear ones?
|A)||Clouds are made up of water vapor, a greenhouse gas.|
|B)||Clouds have a high concentration of CO2, a greenhouse gas.|
|C)||Clouds reflect light from the moon.|
|D)||Clouds absorb ultraviolet light from the sun, and then reradiate this heat energy to Earth.|
Which statement was considered "very unlikely" in the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)?
|A)||Increased carbon dioxide levels are correlated with global warming.|
|B)||Observed global warming over the past 100 years is due solely to natural climatic variability.|
|C)||Arctic sea ice thickness has been declining significantly, an indication of global warming.|
|D)||The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, an indication of global warming.|