In addition to the specific writing patterns you met in Chapter 11, there are other general clues authors use to indicate how information is organized. You say, hear, and read these constantly, so all that is needed is a quick review. Authors use these same signals, regardless of the topic they are writing about. They use these to show the relationship of ideas within sentences, between sentences, and between paragraphs.
These tell you that more information is coming, that additional information will be added.
| ||and||also|| in addition |
| || moreover || furthermore || another |
| || too || again |
Change of Direction Signals
These tell you that the author is doubling back to mention an exception or make a qualification.
| || in spite of || but || even though |
| || yet || however |
| || while || though |
These tell you to pay special attention to the information that follows. Authors typically these phrases at the beginning of a sentence.
| || Above all || It is important || A key feature is |
| || Especially important || Be sure you understand || Remember that |
| || To repeat, To reiterate || It should be noted that |
Most of all
| || The basic concept || The heart of the matter |
More than anything else
| || The main point || The primary outcome |
More than anything else
| || The main point || The primary outcome || The main issue |
| || Pay particular attention to |
It cannot be emphasized enough
| || || || |
Authors also use exclamation points (!), special type ( bold , italics, color ), a heading such as Conclusion, and points set off with numbers or letters (1, 2, 3; a, b, c).
These tell you that an example or illustration is coming. Examples often show you what an idea or principle means in reality or real life.
| || for example || to illustrate || for instance|
| || like|| such as|| specifically|
Summarization and Conclusion Signals
The ORL presents information about summaries, shortened versions of material that give the main points. Authors often end chapter sections or even entire chapters with a summary. Since summary paragraphs contain such valuable information, you should pay special attention to them. Authors use these signals to introduce summaries and important conclusions:
| || In summary|| To summarize|| In brief|
| || In short|| To sum up|
| || All in all|| All things considered|