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Multiple Choice Quiz
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According to your text, a set of methods used to collect information about phenomena in particular area of interest and build a reliable base of knowledge about them defines:
B)the research process.
D)the rational method.
According to your text, at the heart of any science is that:
A)information is obtained only through experimentation.
B)information is obtained through observation and measurement of phenomena.
C)pseudoscientific explanations are not automatically rejected.
D)scientific explanations are not rigorously tested.
Someone who does science is termed a(n) "_________."
The idea that science is a way of thinking and not just a way of doing things is supported by which of the following?
A)Relevant information is sought out.
B)Solutions to problems are rigorously tested.
C)Information in the popular media is approached with skepticism.
D)All of the above
E)Both a and b
According to your text, a scientist can do science by:
A)conducting a controlled experiment.
B)measuring two or more variables and looking for a relationship among them.
C)relaxing normally rigorous scientific methods for difficult problems.
D)All of the above
E)Both a and b
Research that is conducted to test a purely theoretical issue is termed:
A)applied research.
B)laboratory research.
C)basic research.
D)fundamental research.
Dr. Jones conducts an experiment to help a local corporation solve some production problems. This experiment would best be classified as:
A)applied research.
B)fundamental research.
C)pilot research.
D)basic research.
The "_________" is the human tendency to seek out information that confirms what one already believes.
A)disconfirmation bias
B)confirmation bias
C)egotistical bias
D)verification bias
Even if you do not plan a career doing research, your text says that you should care about learning about research:
A)so that you can critically analyze items you read in the popular press.
B)because you are bombarded with science and research every day.
C)so you can impress your professors.
D)All of the above
E)Both a and b
Cialdini (1994) refers to the early phases of research involving systematic observations of naturally occurring behavior as:
On a late night infomercial, a person presenting herself as a doctor makes several claims about a new weight loss drug. She claims to have evidence to prove its effectiveness, but she is not able to produce any hard evidence to this effect. Instead, she relies on the testimonials of two people who successfully lost weight while using the drug. According to your text, we would most likely classify this situation as:
B)naive science.
C)true science.
D)misused science.
Which of the following was listed in your text as a "quality" defining pseudoscience?
A)Avoidance of the peer review process that would scientifically scrutinize ideas and claims.
B)Reliance on a confirmational strategy rather than a disconfirmational one to test ideas or claims.
C)Excessive use of impressive sounding jargon that lends false credibility to ideas and claims.
D)All of the above
E)Both b and c
Scientific explanations are based on objective and systematic observations carried out under carefully controlled conditions. This quality makes scientific explanations:
A scientific explanation that is _______________________ is the least complex, requiring the fewest assumptions.
Explanations that are simple and based on the limited information available from a situation observed are:
B)circular explanations.
C)commonsense explanations.
D)authoritative explanations.
Scientific explanations differ from nonscientific explanations in that scientific explanations are:
A)less general.
B)subjected to rigorous research scrutiny.
C)more likely to be based on hearsay and anecdotal evidence.
D)Both a and b
The "racism" explanation for the Jarrod Miller shooting shows that:
A)even scientific explanations sometimes fail.
B)commonsense explanations do not provide an adequate explanation for observed behavior.
C)it is difficult to avoid the trap of pseudoexplanations.
D)None of the above
Explanations based on belief:
A)need no evidence to support them.
B)are often trusted because they seem to fit with the larger framework of belief.
C)can never be tested empirically.
D)Both a and b
E)Both b and c
Scientific explanations sometimes fail because they:
A)sometimes are based on inferring underlying causes from observed events.
B)are too general.
C)are too heavily rooted in a flawed belief system.
D)are difficult to develop into testable hypotheses.
When an explanatory concept is nothing more than a new label for an existing phenomenon, we have a(n):
B)inferred explanation.
C)commonsense explanation.
D)alternative explanation.
With a(n) "_________," behavior is explained by an underlying concept and the existence of the underlying concept is proven by the behavior it is intended to explain.
A)faith-based explanation
B)circular explanation
C)inferred explanation
D)commonsense explanation
To avoid the trap of circular explanations, you should:
A)include more than one independent variable in your experiment.
B)avoid using correlational research designs.
C)provide independent measures of the behavior of interest and the explanatory concept.
D)place a higher premium on maintaining internal validity rather than external validity.
After reading about a terrorist attack against a passenger airliner, you go to the library and read about the factors contributing to such behavior. The method of inquiry you are using is the:
A)rational method.
B)scientific method.
C)exploratory method.
D)method of authority.
The rational method of inquiry is most useful in the early stages of science to:
A)identify potential causal relationships among variables.
B)develop hypotheses that will be subjected to empirical test.
C)help you decide which research questions are important and which are not.
D)None of the above
The scientific method of inquiry differs from other methods of inquiry in that the scientific method:
A)requires that hypotheses be tested empirically.
B)is limited to experimental research.
C)does not require revision and retesting of hypotheses that are not fully supported.
D)All of the above
Any characteristic or quantity that can take on several different values is a:
C)hypothetical value.
D)None of the above
A hypothesis is:
A)a statement of the actual relationship between variables.
B)a tentative statement about the relationship between variables.
C)tested only if it is not supported using the method of authority or rational method.
D)None of the above
The point where the scientific method differs from the other methods of inquiry is:
A)initial observation of a phenomenon under real-world conditions.
B)formulation of tentative explanations for observed phenomena.
C)further observing and experimenting on an observed phenomenon.
D)refining and retesting tentative explanations.
Imagine that you have conducted an experiment and confirmed your hypothesis. If you were using the scientific method, your next step would probably be to:
A)abandon your line of research and start a whole new research program.
B)refine your hypothesis and further study the behavior of interest.
C)do your experiment again because your results were probably in error.
D)None of the above
The first step in the research process is:
A)choosing a research design.
B)deciding which statistics you want to use to analyze your data.
C)lining up participants for your study.
D)developing a research idea and hypothesis.
Hypothesis development involves deductive reasoning, which is deriving:
A)general laws from specific instances.
B)general hypotheses from specific theories.
C)specific hypotheses from specific ideas.
D)specific hypotheses from general ideas.
Once you have narrowed your research question and developed a testable hypothesis, the next step in the research process is to:
A)conduct your study.
B)choose a research design.
C)decide on what to measure.
D)choose a data analysis strategy.
A miniature version of your study done to test your materials or procedures is called a:
A)pilot study.
B)deductive study.
C)lead study.
D)manipulation check study.

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