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abstract  A summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author.
abstract words  Words that refer to ideas or concepts.
acceptance speech  A speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
active listening  Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view.
ad hominem  A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
adrenaline  A hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
after-dinner speech  A speech to entertain that makes a thoughtful point about its subject in a light-hearted manner.
alliteration  Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
analogical reasoning  Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
animation  The way objects enter and/or exit a PowerPoint slide.
antithesis  The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.
appreciative listening  Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
articulation  The physical production of particular speech sounds.
atlas  A book of maps.
attitude  A frame of mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution, etc.
audience-centeredness  Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation.
bandwagon  A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
bar graph  A graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items.
bibliography  A list of all the sources used in preparing a speech.
Bill of Rights  The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
biographical aid  A reference work that provides information about people.
bookmark  A feature in a Web browser that stores links to Web sites so they can be easily revisited.
brainstorming  A method of generating ideas by free association of words and thoughts.
brief example  A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.
burden of proof  The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.
call number  A number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where they can be found on the shelves.
catalogue  A listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library.
causal order  A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.
causal reasoning  Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
central idea  A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
channel  The means by which a message is communicated.
chart  A visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form.
chronological order  A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
cliché  A trite or overused expression.
clip art  Pictures and symbols that represent common objects, processes, and ideas.
clutter  Discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea.
commemorative speech  A speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea.
comparison  A statement of the similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.
comparative advantages order  A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions.
comprehensive listening  Listening to understand the message of a speaker.
concept  A belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like.
concrete words  Words that refer to tangible objects.
connective  A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
connotative meaning  The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
consensus  A group decision that is acceptable to all members of the group.
contrast  A statement of the differences among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.
conversational quality  Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed.
creating common ground  A technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience.
credibility  The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
crescendo ending  A conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity.
criteria  Standards on which a judgment or decision can be based.
critical listening  Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.
critical thinking  Focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion.
delivery cues  Directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech.
demographic audience analysis  Audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religious orientation, group membership, and racial, ethnic, or cultural background.
denotative meaning  The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
derived credibility  The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
description  A statement that depicts a person, event, idea, and the like with clarity and vividness.
designated leader  A person who is elected or appointed as leader when the group is formed.
dialect  A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
direct quotation  Testimony that is presented word for word.
dissolve ending  A conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement.
dyad  A group of two people.
egocentrism  The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.
either-or  A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
emergent leader  A group member who emerges as a leader during the group's deliberations.
empathic listening  Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker.
ethical decisions  Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines.
ethics  The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.
ethnocentrism  The belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.
ethos  The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
event  Anything that happens or is regarded as happening.
evidence  Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
example  A specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.
expert testimony  Testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields.
extemporaneous speech  A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
extended example  A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point.
eye contact  Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person.
fair use  A provision of copyright law that permits students and teachers to use portions of copyrighted materials for educational purposes.
fallacy  An error in reasoning.
false cause  An error in causal reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. This error is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning 'after this, therefore because of this.'
feedback  The messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.
fixed-alternative questions  Questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives.
font  A complete set of type of the same design.
frame of reference  The sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.
gazetteer  A geographical dictionary.
general encyclopedia  A comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches of human knowledge.
general purpose  The broad goal of a speech.
generic "he"  The use of "he" to refer to both women and men.
gestures  Motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech.
global plagiarism  Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own.
goodwill  The audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind.
graph  A visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns.
hasty generalization  An error in reasoning from specific instances, in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
hearing  The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.
hidden agenda  A set of unstated individual goals that may conflict with the goals of the group as a whole.
hypothetical example  An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation.
identification  A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.
imagery  The use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas.
implied leader  A group member to whom other members defer because of her or his rank, expertise, or other quality.
impromptu speech  A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
inclusive language  Language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors.
incremental plagiarism  Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.
inflections  Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice.
informative speech  A speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding.
initial credibility  The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
interference  Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.
internal preview  A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next.
internal summary  A statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points.
invalid analogy  An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.
invisible Web  The multitude of Web databases and other resources that are not indexed by search engines.
jargon  The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group.
key-word outline  An outline that briefly notes a speaker's main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form.
kinesics  The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.
leadership  The ability to influence group members so as to help achieve the goals of the group.
line graph  A graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space.
listener  The person who receives the speaker's message.
listening  Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear.
logos  The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
main points  The major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points.
maintenance needs  Communicative actions necessary to maintain interpersonal relations in a small group.
manuscript speech  A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience.
mean  The average value of a group of numbers.
median  The middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest.
mental dialogue with the audience  The mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech.
message  Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.
metaphor  An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
mode  The number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers.
model  An object, usually built to scale, that represents another object in detail.
monotone  A constant pitch or tone of voice.
Monroe's motivated sequence  A method of organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. The five steps of the motivated sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
multimedia presentation  A speech that uses computer software to combine several kinds of visual and/or audio aids in the same talk.
name-calling  The use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups.
need  The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
nonverbal communication  Communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
object  Anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form.
open-ended questions  Questions that allow respondents to answer however they want.
oral report  A speech presenting the findings, conclusions, decisions, etc., of a small group.
panel discussion  A structured conversation on a given topic among several people in front of an audience.
parallelism  The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
paraphrase  To restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words.
patchwork plagiarism  Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own.
pathos  The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
pause  A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech.
peer testimony  Testimony from ordinary people with first-hand experience or insight on a topic.
periodical database  A research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines.
personalize  To present one's ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience.
persuasive speech  A speech designed to change or reinforce the audience's beliefs or actions.
pie graph  A graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns.
pitch  The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
plagiarism  Presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own.
plan  The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
positive nervousness  Controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation.
practicality  The third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems?
preliminary bibliography  A list compiled early in the research process of works that look as if they might contain helpful information about a speech topic.
preparation outline  A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech.
presentation  A PowerPoint file containing all the slides for a given speech.
preview statement  A statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body of the speech.
problem-cause-solution order  A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point identifies a problem, the second main point analyzes the causes of the problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem.
problem-solution order  A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
problem-solving small group  A small group formed to solve a particular problem.
procedural needs  Routine 'housekeeping' actions necessary for the efficient conduct of business in a small group.
process  A systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product.
pronunciation  The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language.
question of fact  A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
question of policy  A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
question of value  A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
quoting out of context  Quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it.
rate  The speed at which a person speaks.
reasoning  The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
reasoning from principle  Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
reasoning from specific instances  Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
red herring  A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
reference work  A work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers.
reflective-thinking method  A five-step method for directing discussion in a problem-solving small group.
repetition  Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
research interview  An interview conducted to gather information for a speech.
residual message  What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech.
rhetorical question  A question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud.
rhythm  The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
sans-serif font  A typeface with straight edges on the letters.
scale questions  Questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers.
search aid  A program used to find information on the World Wide Web.
search engine  A search aid that indexes Web pages and checks them for sites that match a researcher's request.
serif font  A typeface with rounded edges on the letters.
signpost  A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas.
simile  An explicit comparison, introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
situation  The time and place in which speech communication occurs.
situational audience analysis  Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors, such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion.
slide  A single frame in a PowerPoint presentation.
slippery slope  A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
small group  A collection of three to twelve people that assemble for a specific purpose.
spare "brain time"  The difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 words a minute).
spatial order  A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.
speaker  The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.
speaking outline  A brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech.
special encyclopedia  A comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc.
specific purpose  A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
speech of introduction  A speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience.
speech of presentation  A speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
speech to gain immediate action  A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy.
speech to gain passive agreement  A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy.
sponsoring organization  An organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the World Wide Web.
stage fright  Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
statistics  Numerical data.
stereotyping  Creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike.
strategic organization  Putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience.
supporting materials  The materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony.
symposium  A public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic.
target audience  The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
task needs  Substantive actions necessary to help a small group complete its assigned task.
terminal credibility  The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
testimony  Quotations or paraphrases used to support a point.
thesaurus  A book of synonyms.
topic  The subject of a speech.
topical order  A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
transition  A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.
transitions  The way PowerPoint slides enter and/or exit the screen.
transparency  A visual aid drawn, written, or printed on a sheet of clear acetate and shown with an overhead projector.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)  The string of letters or numbers that identify a website's address.
virtual library  A search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.
visual framework  The pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas.
visualization  Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
vocal variety  Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
vocalized pause  A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as 'uh,' 'er,' and 'um.'
volume  The loudness or softness of the speaker's voice.
yearbook  A reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year.

Lucas, Art of PublicSpeaking9eOnline Learning Center

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