Bernie describes himself as in control, masculine, and intelligent when he is with his girlfriend; but when he is with his buddies, he describes himself as fun loving and spontaneous. Bernie is
|D)||lacking an identity.|
____________ believed that a strong discrepancy exists between real and ideal selves is a sign of maladjustment.
Adolescents are more likely than children
|A)||not to use social comparison.|
|B)||to be self-conscious.|
|C)||to lose the need to protect the self.|
|D)||not to have possible selves.|
Self-esteem refers to ______________, whereas self-concept refers to ____________.
|A)||domain-specific evaluations of the self; self-image or global self-worth|
|B)||self-image or global self-worth; social context|
|C)||self-image or global self-worth; domain-specific evaluations of the self|
|D)||social context; self-image or global self-worth|
One of the three additional domains that Harter includes when measuring the self esteem of adolescents, as compared with children, is
Helen is a narcissist. When would we most likely expect her to be aggressive toward others?
|A)||when she feels in control.|
|B)||when she is being praised.|
|C)||when she is feeling shamed.|
|D)||in almost any situation.|
Which statement about changing self-esteem during adolescence is true?
|A)||Self-esteem increases in adolescence.|
|B)||Adolescent females have greater self-esteem than adolescent males do.|
|C)||Efforts to improve adolescents' school performance always lead to increased self-esteem.|
|D)||Self-esteem decreases in adolescence.|
Adolescents' self-esteem correlates most strongly with ____________.
According to Susan Harter, the most effective way to work on improving an person's self esteem is to
|A)||intervene at the level of the causes of self esteem.|
|B)||set up situations where the person can be successful.|
|C)||praise the person's accomplishments and ignore their failures.|
|D)||appreciate each individual's uniqueness.|
According to Erik Erikson, ___________ is a key concept in understanding adolescent development.
Erikson's ____________ developmental stage, called ____________, occurs during adolescence.
|A)||second; identity versus identity confusion|
|B)||fifth; identity versus identity confusion|
|C)||fifth; personality and role experimentation|
|D)||sixth; psychosocial moratorium|
Two core components of Erikson's theory of identity development are ____________ and ____________.
|A)||role experimentation; crisis resolution|
|B)||personality; crisis resolution|
|C)||personality; psychosocial context|
|D)||personality; role experimentation|
According to William Damon, adolescent development today is characterized by
|A)||indecision rather than motivated reflection.|
|B)||motivated reflection rather than indecision.|
|C)||a pursuit of clear goals.|
|D)||determination more than ambivalence.|
According to James Marcia's four identity statuses, which stage represents the situation of an adolescent having gone through a crisis and made a commitment?
Which of the following is NOT one of Marcia's four statuses of identity?
Tiffany, a high school senior, has no concerns about what she will do after she graduates. She tells her friends that she just "goes with the flow" and will do whatever comes her way. Tiffany demonstrates which of James Marcia's four identity statuses?
A recent extension of Marcia's identity status concept includes
|A)||exploration in depth and identification with commitment.|
|B)||more focus on crisis and less focus on commitment.|
|C)||a comparison of early adolescent identity with later adolescent identity.|
|D)||exploration of identity achievement and identity confusion.|
The term ____________ refers to the stories that people construct and tell about themselves to define who they are.
Which parenting style is most likely to foster healthy adolescent identity development?
Hannah is described as having a bicultural identity. This would suggest that she
|A)||identifies in some way with her own ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture.|
|B)||is confused about whether to identify with her ethnic group or with the majority culture.|
|C)||feels pressured to adopt the values of the majority culture over those of her own ethnic group.|
|D)||has split off from her ethnic group so she can fit more comfortably with the majority culture.|
Among ethnic minority adolescents, well-developed ethnic identity is associated with
|A)||dislike of one's own culture.|
|B)||dislike of cultures other than one's own.|
|C)||preference for one's own group over other ethnic groups.|
|D)||positive attitudes toward one's own ethnic group and also toward members of other ethnic groups.|
Recent research by Jean Phinney has found that
|A)||identity formation occurs later for ethnic minority individuals who do not go to college.|
|B)||identity formation occurs later for ethnic minority individuals who go to college.|
|C)||identity formation occurs later for ethnic minority individuals who take on family responsibilities.|
|D)||timing of identity formation is not related to whether an individual goes to college.|
Which statement about gender and identity is true?
|A)||Gender differences in identity have increased since the 1960s.|
|B)||Gender differences in identity have decreased since the 1960s.|
|C)||Gender differences in identity have remained the same since the 1960s.|
|D)||There are no gender differences in identity.|
Based on Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, an important factor in forming intimate relationships is
|A)||a need for interdependence.|
|B)||a strong sense of independence.|
|C)||a strong sense of self.|
|D)||a nurturing personality.|
Most researchers feel that ________ contributes the LEAST to emotional changes during adolescence?
Which of these is NOT an emotional competency important for adolescents to develop?
|A)||Developing multiple selves|
|B)||Using self-regulation to cope with negative emotions|
|C)||Understanding how one's expressed emotions affect other people|
|D)||Being able to discern other people's emotions|
Which of these is NOT one of the big five core personality traits?
|B)||Openness to experience|
A person's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding is called
A recent study of the big five factors in adolescence found ____________ to be a key predictor of adjustment and competence.
|A)||openness to experience|
The match between a person's temperament and the environmental demands he must cope with is called
|B)||goodness of fit.|