For an average size male adult (160 pounds), the consumption of two drinks within a very short period of time would elevate the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to about what level?
The alcohol for human consumption as contained in beer, wine and whiskey is
|A)||prohibited for use in some Olympic sports|
|B)||may increase performance in some types of sports|
|C)||is ergolytic for some sports|
|D)||is a source of energy|
|E)||all of the above|
|A)||can be enjoyed in moderation|
|B)||causes the development of many health problems|
|C)||should be in the form of tea to improve health|
|D)||is high in all soda drinks|
|E)||all of the above|
Of the following performance-enhancing substances, which has been most associated with significant health risks?
About how many milligrams of caffeine are in a 6-ounce cup of perked coffee?
Which of the following is not a physiological effect of caffeine?
|A)||decreases the metabolic rate|
|B)||stimulates the central nervous system|
|C)||increases the secretion of epinephrine|
|D)||increases heart rate|
|E)||is an effective ergogenic aid for some exercise tasks|
Research generally supports the theory that caffeine may enhance performance in long distance endurance events. Which of the following is the least likely hypothesis?
|A)||it may exert a psychological stimulating effect|
|B)||it stimulates the release of epinephrine from the adrenal gland|
|C)||it decreases the use of both free fatty acids and muscle glycogen|
|D)||it may decrease the perception of effort during exercise|
|E)||it may exert a direct effect on the muscles to increase muscle contractile force|
Increasing research suggests that moderate alcohol consumption, or "low risk" drinking, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. All of the following, except which, are hypothesized to contribute to this reduced risk?
|A)||a relaxation effect and reduced anxiety|
|B)||decreased platelet aggregability (decreased possibility of blood clots)|
|C)||increased blood flow to the brain|
|D)||a direct toxic effect to kill cancer cells|
|E)||an increase in HDL-cholesterol|
Which of the following herbal ergogenic aids consistently has been found to enhance sports performance?
|E)||none of the above|
Which athlete is most likely to benefit from a proper sodium bicarbonate loading procedure?
|C)||100-meter sprinter (track)|
|D)||400-meter sprinter (track)|
Effects of the use or abuse of anabolic/androgenic steroids may include all of the following except which?
|A)||increased muscle mass and strength|
|B)||protection from coronary artery disease|
|C)||acne and hair loss|
How many ounces of wine constitutes one drink and contains about 14 grams of alcohol?
Which of the following is the not one of the possible adverse effect of prolonged, excessive alcohol intake?
|A)||cirrhosis of the liver|
|B)||oral or pharyngeal cancer|
|D)||fetal alcohol syndrome|
|E)||all of the above|
Which of the following statements regarding caffeine and exercise performance is false?
|A)||caffeine is a stimulant drug|
|B)||caffeine may enhance various types of exercise performance|
|C)||the lowest effective dose appears to be about 20 milligrams per kilogram body weight|
|D)||caffeine intake just before performance does not appear to have a diuretic effect|
|E)||some research suggests taking caffeine in a pill form ma be more effective than consuming coffee as the source|
Use of which of the following performance-enhancing substances is not prohibited by the IOC for all athletes either in competition or training?
Androstenedione and DHEA are theorized to increase the amount in the body of this hormone.
|E)||human growth hormone|
Which of the following food drug or dietary supplement is most likely to be used by athletes involved in archery or pistol shooting as a means to enhance performance?
Which body organ processes most drugs in the body and thus may be adversely affected over time with drug abuse?
For women who are pregnant the current recommendation to help prevent fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects is to
|A)||abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy|
|B)||consume no more than 3-4 drinks per week|
|C)||consume no more than one drink daily|
|D)||consume no more than two drinks daily|
|E)||consume no more than two drinks daily, but only red wine|
The use of sodium bicarbonate, dubbed "soda loading" appears to have ergogenic effects
|A)||when 300 milligrams per kilogram of body weight is used as the minimum dosage and the effect increases proportionally as the dosage is increased to 1000 milligrams.|
|B)||during high-intensity anaerobic exercise where it buffers the lactic acid that is produced when the lactic acid energy system is utilized.|
|C)||on exercise tasks dependent primarily upon the ATP-PCr energy system or in resistive exercise stressing strength or power.|
|D)||and, also, appears to be medically safe with no noted adverse effects even with high dosages.|