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Where is most of Earth's freshwater?
A)ice caps, glaciers, and groundwater
B)groundwater and rivers
C)lakes and swamps
D)rivers and streams
Which of the following units cannot be used to measure the volume of water?
B)cubic meter
Which source of drinking water is most likely to be pure and safe to drink?
A)spring water
B)bottled spring water
C)river water
D)municipal water
Most groundwater pumped in the United States is used for:
C)drinking water
D)swimming pools
Which one of the following statements is true regarding the Earth's supply of freshwater?
A)The largest volume exists in lakes and reservoirs.
B)There is more in the form of water vapor in the atmosphere than there is as liquid groundwater.
C)There is more freshwater in glaciers and ice sheets than exists as groundwater.
D)There is more water in rivers than exists as soil moisture and groundwater.
Which of the following materials probably has the lowest permeability?
A)highly fractured granite
B)compacted clay with abundant tiny pore spaces
C)loosely cemented, well-sorted sediment
D)loosely cemented, well-rounded sand grains
What is a possible way to decrease permeability?
A)seal fractures with clays and other minerals
B)fill pores between grains with clays and other fine-grained materials
C)fill pores with natural cement
D)all of these
E)none of these
Which of the following is NOT true about the unsaturated zone?
A)pore spaces in the unsaturated zone contain air with no water
B)it overlies the water table
C)it overlies the saturated zone
D)there is an unsaturated zone below some rivers
Which of the following materials has low porosity and low permeability?
A)unfractured granite
B)uncompacted clays
C)limestone with caverns
D)well-sorted sand
Approximately how fast does groundwater move beneath the surface of the Earth?
A)a few centimeters per day
B)a few meters per day
C)a few kilometers per day
D)a few kilometers per hour
Each number on this figure refers to a location with groundwater in a subsurface material that is consistent in character across the entire figure. Of these locations, which two sites are on the opposite side of a groundwater divide?
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A)between 1 and 2
B)between 2 and 3
C)between 3 and 4
D)between 4 and 5
E)none of these
Which of the following is true about the water table?
A)the shape of the water table does not mimic topography
B)the water table generally is highest in elevation beneath lakes
C)the water table can slope in opposite directions beneath a hill
D)all of the above
E)none of the above
The permeability of a material refers to:
A)the volume of air space in a material
B)a meandering stream's movement across the underlying bedrock
C)the ease with which a stream erodes material
D)the ability of water to flow through a material
Which of the following are settings where surface water becomes groundwater?
A)a spring
B)a river that is higher than the water table
C)where an impermeable unit lies at the surface
D)all of these
E)none of these
Which of the following generally is true about caves formed by dissolution?
A)acidic waters dissolve feldspar in granite, producing clay
B)groundwater removed material from limestone
C)hot geothermal waters introduce acids into shallow rocks
D)carbon dioxide rises from depth and dissolves calcite and clay
Which of the following features is formed by the collapse of caves?
Which of the following is the least likely place to find hot springs?
A)Yellowstone National Park, site of recent volcanism
B)New Zealand (contains a convergent and transform boundary)
C)Iceland (contains a divergent plate margin)
D)Florida, surrounded by warm sea water
E)Nevada and Idaho, near areas with recent faulting and volcanism
Which of the following is NOT used to explore for groundwater?
A)geologic field studies
B)gravity surveys
C)studies of surface water
E)all of these are used to explore for groundwater
Which of the following is NOT a possible source of water contamination?
A)dry cleaners
C)rocks that have been mineralized by natural processes but not mined
E)all of these are possible sources of contamination

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