The oceans have a well-mixed surface layer approximately ____ meters thick.
If you mix two samples of water with different temperatures and salinities but the same density, you will produce a mixture that has:
|A)||a lower density.|
|B)||a higher density.|
|C)||the same density as the two samples.|
|D)||You cannot predict exactly what will happen.|
The depth of the mixed layer is greatest in the:
Downwelling occurs in areas of:
|C)||strong offshore coastal winds.|
Most of the information we have about the Arctic Ocean was collected by scientists from:
|B)||the United States.|
|C)||the former Soviet Union.|
The total cost of running an oceanographic research vessel can be as much as ______ per day.
The Indian Ocean is unique because it:
|A)||has a very high average salinity.|
|B)||is the smallest ocean.|
|C)||is the deepest ocean.|
|D)||is a Southern Hemisphere Ocean.|
Select the following relationship of water properties that is not correct.
|A)||increased salinity: increased density|
|B)||increased temperature: decreased density|
|C)||increased temperature: increased salinity|
|D)||increased evaporation: increased salinity|
Overturn occurs when the:
|A)||water column is isopycnal.|
|B)||density at the surface is less than the density at depth.|
|C)||pycnocline is very pronounced.|
|D)||density at depth is less than the density at the surface.|
Which of the following statements on density structure is not correct?
|A)||Two isothermal bodies of water may have different densities.|
|B)||Melting of sea ice produces cold dense fresh water that sinks to the sea floor.|
|C)||Storms and disturbances may cause water to become isothermal to greater depths.|
|D)||The densest water in the open oceans results from winter cooling and freezing in the Antarctic seas.|
Thermohaline sinking of dense water occurs:
|C)||at surface divergence zones.|
|D)||along downwelling zones.|
Upwelling of deep water:
|A)||provides nutrient rich water to marine plant life.|
|B)||moves very rapidly relative to surface currents.|
|C)||can be found at surface convergence zones.|
|D)||is not a thermohaline circulation mechanism.|
Isotopic tracers in the oceans:
|A)||can provide a measure of the rate of movement of water in the oceans.|
|B)||make use of radioactive substances produced in atmospheric nuclear tests.|
|C)||provide data for modeling water pathways in the oceans.|
|D)||are accurately described by each of the above.|
The Lomonosov Ridge divides the ___________ Ocean basin.
The densest water in the oceans is ___________ water.
|A)||North Atlantic deep|
The Arctic Ocean:
|A)||has the narrowest shelves of any ocean basin.|
|B)||has a density controlled more by salinity differences than temperature differences.|
|C)||interacts more with the Pacific than the Atlantic oceans.|
|D)||is described by A, B, and C.|
Which of the following statements on ocean layering is not correct?
|A)||Water types change characteristics rapidly.|
|B)||Horizontal mixing is more efficient than vertical mixing.|
|C)||Mediterranean water can still be identified in the middle of the Atlantic.|
|D)||The deepest water in the Mediterranean is produced in the Aegean Sea.|
The water mass identified by one T-S point rather than a curve, is ___________ water.
|A)||North Atlantic deep|
CTD sensors measure which of the following characteristics?
Which type of ocean measurement is not performed by satellites?
|B)||oil spill detection|
|C)||sea surface temperature|
|D)||internal structure acoustic tomography|
Which of the following statements is true?
|A)||As temperature decreases and salinity decreases, density decreases.|
|B)||As temperature increases and salinity increases, density decreases.|
|C)||As temperature increases and salinity decreases, density increases.|
|D)||As temperature decreases and salinity increases, density increases.|
An area where temperature rapidly changes with depth is known as the:
Which of the following is true about the relationships between temperature, salinity, and density?
|A)||Salinity has a greater affect on density than temperature.|
|B)||Temperature has a greater affect on density than salinity.|
|C)||Temperature and salinity play equal roles in affecting density.|
|D)||Neither temperature nor salinity affects density.|
The densest water body in the oceans is:
|A)||North Atlantic deep water.|
|B)||Antarctic intermediate water.|
|C)||Antarctic bottom water.|
|D)||South Atlantic surface water.|