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abstract words  Words or phrases that refer generally to ideas, qualities, acts, or relationships.
accommodation goal  The marginalized group manages to keep co-cultural identity while striving for positive relationships with the dominant culture.
active listening  Involved listening with a purpose.
active perception  Perception in which your mind selects, organizes, and interprets that which you sense.
adaptors  Nonverbal movements that you might perform fully in private but only partially in public.
adoption  The listeners start a new behavior as a result of the persuasive presentation.
affect displays  Nonverbal movements of the face and body used to show emotion.
affection  The emotion of caring for others and/or being cared for.
aggressiveness  Assertion of one's rights at the expense of others and care about one's own needs but no one else's.
analogy  A comparison of things in some respects, especially in position or function, which are otherwise dissimilar.
androgynous  Refers to persons who possess stereotypically female and male characteristics.
antonym  Defines an idea by opposition.
argument  A proposition that asserts some course of action.
argumentativeness  The quality or state of being argumentative; synonymous with contentiousness or combativeness.
articulation  The production of sounds; a component of enunciation.
artifacts  Ornaments or adornments you display that hold communicative potential.
assigned groups  Groups that evolve out of a hierarchy whereby individuals are assigned membership to the group.
assimilation goal  The marginalized group attempts to fit in with the dominant group.
attitude  A predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a person, an object, an idea, or an event.
attractiveness  A concept that includes physical attractiveness, how desirable a person is to work with, and how much "social value" the person has for others.
attribution  The assignment of meaning to people's behavior.
audience analysis  The collection and interpretation of audience information obtained by observation, inferences, questionnaires, or interviews.
autocratic leaders  Leaders who maintain strict control over their group.
automatic attention  The instinctive focus we give to stimuli signaling a change in our surroundings, stimuli that we deem important, or stimuli that we perceive to signal ­danger.
bargaining  The process in which two or more parties attempt to reach an agreement on what each should give and receive in a transaction between them.
behavioral flexibility  The ability to alter behavior to adapt to new situations and to relate in new ways when necessary.
belief  A conviction; often thought to be more enduring than an attitude and less enduring than a value.
bibliographic references  Complete citations that appear in the "references" or "works cited" section of your speech outline.
bibliography  A list of sources used in a presentation.
bodily movement  What the speaker does with his or her entire body during a presentation.
body  The largest part of the presentation, which contains the arguments, evidence, and main content.
boomerang effect  The audience likes you and your message less after your presentation than they did before.
brainstorming  A creative procedure for thinking of as many topics as you can in a limited time.
brakelight function  A forewarning to the audience that the end of the presentation is near.
captive audience  An audience that has not chosen to hear a particular speaker or speech.
cause/effect pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter first explains the causes of an event, a problem, or an issue and then discusses its consequences, results, or effects.
celebrity testimony  Statements made by a public figure who is known to the audience.
channel  The means by which a message moves from the source to the receiver of the message.
chronemics  Also called temporal communication; the way people organize and use time and the messages that are created because of their organization and use of it.
chronological résumé  A document that organizes your credentials over time.
cliché  An expression that has lost originality and force through overuse.
closure  The tendency to fill in missing information in order to complete an otherwise incomplete figure or statement.
co-culture  A group whose beliefs or behaviors distinguish it from the larger culture of which it is a part and with which it shares numerous similarities.
co-culture  A group that exists within a larger, dominant culture but differs from the dominant culture in some significant characteristic.
code  A systematic arrangement of symbols used to create meanings in the mind of another person or persons.
cognitive modification approach  Using positive think­ing to bolster the beginning speaker's confidence.
collaborative style  Thoughtful negotiation and reasoned ­compromise.
collectivist cultures  Cultures that value the group over the individual.
colloquialisms  Words and phrases used informally.
commitment  A measure of how much time and effort you put into a cause; your passion and concern about the topic.
common ground  Also known as co-orientation, the degree to which the speaker's values, beliefs, attitudes, and interests are shared with the audience; an aspect of credibility.
communication apprehension  An individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.
communication competence  The ability to effectively exchange meaning through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior.
communication networks  Patterns of relationships through which information flows in an organization.
communication  The process of using messages to generate meaning.
comparison  Shows the similarity between something well known and something less known.
competence  The degree to which the speaker is perceived as skilled, reliable, experienced, qualified, authoritative, and informed; an aspect of credibility.
complementarity  The idea that we sometimes bond with people whose strengths are our weaknesses.
complementary relationships  Relationships in which each person supplies something the other person or persons lack.
complementation  Nonverbal and verbal codes add meaning to each other and expand the meaning of either message alone.
compliance-gaining  Those attempts made by a source of messages to influence a target "to perform some desired behavior that the target otherwise might not perform."
compliance-resisting  The refusal of targets of influence messages to comply with requests.
conclusion  The part that finishes the presentation by fulfilling the four functions of an ending.
concrete language  Words and statements that are specific rather than abstract or vague.
concrete words  Words that refer to definite persons, places, objects, and acts.
confirmation  Feedback in which others treat you in a manner consistent with who you believe you are.
conjunctive tasks  Group tasks for which no one member has all the necessary information but each member has some information to contribute.
connotative meaning  An individualized or personalized meaning of a word, which may be emotionally laden.
context  A set of circumstances or a situation.
continuance  Encouraging the audience to keep doing what they are doing.
contradiction  Verbal and nonverbal messages conflict.
contradictions  In dialectic theory the idea that each person in a relationship might have two opposing desires for maintaining the relationship.
contrast  Clarifies by showing differences.
control  The ability to influence our environment.
cover letter  A short letter introducing you and your résumé to an interviewer.
criteria  The standards by which a group must judge potential solutions.
critical listening  Listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility.
critical thinking  Analyzing the speaker, the situation, and the speaker's ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented.
cultural competence  The ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, and religions in a manner that recognizes, affirms, and values the worth of individuals, families, and communities and protects and preserves the dignity of each.
cultural relativism  The belief that another culture should be judged by its own context rather than measured against your culture.
culture  A system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use to cope with one another and with their world.
culture  The socially transmitted behavior patterns, ­beliefs, attitudes, and values of a particular period, class, community, or population.
culture  A unique combination of rituals, religious beliefs, ways of thinking, and ways of behaving that unify a group of people.
customer service encounter  The moment of interaction between the customer and the firm.
dating  Specifying when you made an observation, since everything changes over time.
deceptive communication  Practices of deliberately making somebody believe things that are not true.
decode  The process of assigning meaning to others' words in order to translate them into thoughts of your own.
decoding  The process of assigning meaning to the idea or thought in a code.
deductive argument  A logical structure that uses a general proposition applied to a specific instance to draw a conclusion.
defensiveness  Occurs when a person feels attacked.
definitions  Determinations of meaning through description, simplification, examples, analysis, comparison, explanation, or illustration.
delivery  The presentation of a speech using your voice and body to communicate your message.
democratic leaders  Leaders who encourage members to participate in group decisions.
demographic analysis  The collection and interpretation of data about the characteristics of people.
demonstrating  Showing the audience what you are explaining.
denotative meaning  The agreed-upon meaning or dictionary meaning of a word.
descriptiveness  The practice of describing observed behavior or phenomena instead of offering personal reactions or judgments.
designated leader  Someone who has been appointed or elected to a leadership position.
deterrence  Discouraging listeners from taking some action.
dialectic  The tension that exists between two conflicting or interacting forces, elements, or ideas.
dialogue  The act of taking part in a conversation, discussion, or negotiation.
disconfirmation  Feedback in which others fail to respond to your notion of self by responding neutrally.
discontinuance  A persuasive purpose rooted in convincing listeners to stop some current behavior.
disjunctive tasks  Group tasks that require little coordination and that can be completed by the most skilled member working alone.
doublespeak  Any language that is purposefully constructed to disguise its actual meaning.
downward communication  Messages flowing from superiors to subordinates.
dyadic communication  Two-person communication.
dynamism  The extent to which the speaker is perceived as bold, active, energetic, strong, empathic, and assertive; an aspect of credibility.
economic orientation  Organizations that manufacture products and/or offer services for consumers.
effect pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter first explains the causes of an event, a problem, or an issue and then discusses its consequences, results, or effects.
emblems  Nonverbal movements that substitute for words and phrases.
emergent groups  Groups resulting from environmental conditions leading to the ­formation of a cohesive group of individuals.
emergent leader  Someone who becomes an informal leader by exerting influence toward achievement of a group's goal but who does not hold the formal position or role of leader.
emoticons  Typographic symbols showing emotional meaning.
emotional labor  Jobs in which employees are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations.
empathic listening  Listening with a purpose and attempting to understand the other person.
emphasis  The use of nonverbal cues to strengthen ­verbal messages.
encode  The process of translating your thoughts into words.
encoding  The process of translating an idea or thought into a code.
enunciation  The pronunciation and articulation of sounds and words.
ethics  A set of principles of right conduct.
ethics  A set of moral principles or values.
ethnocentrism  The belief that your own group or culture is superior to other groups or cultures.
euphemism  A more polite, pleasant expression used instead of a socially unacceptable form.
examples  Specific instances used to illustrate your point.
expert testimony  Statements made by someone who has special knowledge or expertise about an issue or idea.
explanation  A clarification of what something is or how it works.
explanation  A means of idea development that simplifies or clarifies an idea while arousing audience interest.
explicit-rule culture  A culture in which information, policies, procedures, and expectations are explicit.
extemporaneous mode  A carefully prepared and researched presentation delivered in a conversational style.
extrinsic motivation  A method of making information relevant by providing the audience with reasons outside the presentation itself for listening to the content of the presentation.
eye contact  The extent to which a speaker looks directly at the audience.
face  The socially approved and presented identity of an individual.
facework  Verbal and nonverbal strategies that are used to present your own varying images to others and to help them maintain their own images.
facial expressions  Any nonverbal cues expressed by the speaker's face.
feedback  The receiver's verbal and nonverbal ­response to the source's message.
figure  The focal point of your attention.
first-person observation  Observations based on something that you personally have sensed.
fluency  The smoothness of delivery, the flow of words, and the absence of vocalized pauses.
formal communication  Messages that follow prescribed channels of communication throughout the organization.
formal role  Also called positional role; an assigned role based on an individual's position or title within a group.
frozen evaluation  An assessment of a concept that does not change over time.
functional résumé  A document that organizes your credentials by type of function performed.
fundamental attribution error  In judging other people, the tendency to attribute their successes to the situation and their failures to their personal characteristics.
gestures  Movements of the head, arms, and hands to illustrate, emphasize, or signal ideas in a presentation.
ground  The background against which your focused attention occurs.
group climate  The emotional tone or atmosphere members create within the group.
group conflict  An expressed struggle between two or more members of a group.
group culture  The socially negotiated system of rules that guide group behavior.
group decision support system (GDSS)  An interactive network of computers with specialized software allowing users to generate solutions for unstructured problems.
groupthink  An unintended outcome of cohesion in which the desire for cohesion and agreement takes precedence over critical analysis and discussion.
hearing  The act of receiving sound.
heterosexist language  Language that implies that everyone is heterosexual.
high self-monitors  Individuals who are highly aware of their identity management behavior.
high-context (HC) cultures  Cultures like those of the Asian Pacific Rim and Central and South America, in which much of the meaning is "preprogrammed information" understood by the receiver and transmitted also by the setting in which the transaction occurs.
horizontal communication  Messages between members of an organization with equal power.
hostile work environment sexual harassment  Conditions in the workplace that are sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile and that affect an individual's ability to perform his or her job.
hurtful messages  Messages that create emotional pain or upset.
identity management  The control (or lack of control) of the communication of information through a performance.
illustrators  Nonverbal movements that accompany or reinforce verbal messages.
imagery  Use of words that appeal to the senses and create pictures in the mind.
immediacy  Communication behaviors intended to create perceptions of psychological closeness with others.
immediate behavioral purposes  The actions expected from an audience during and immediately after a presentation.
immediate purpose  A statement of what you intend to accomplish in this particular presentation.
immediate purpose  What you expect to achieve on the day of your presentation.
implicit-rule culture  A culture in which information and cultural rules are implied and already known to the participants.
impromptu mode  Delivery of a presentation without notes, plans, or formal preparation; characterized by spontaneity and conversational language.
inclusion  The state of being ­involved with others; a human need.
incremental plagiarism  The intentional or unintentional use of information from one or more sources without fully divulging how much information is directly quoted.
indexing  Identifying the uniqueness of objects, events, and people.
individualistic cultures  Cultures that value individual freedom, choice, uniqueness, and independence.
inductive argument  A logical structure that provides enough specific instances for the listener to make an inferential leap to a generalization that summarizes the individual instances.
inflection  The variety or changes in pitch.
informal communication  Any interaction that does not generally follow the formal structure of the organization but emerges out of natural social interaction among organization members.
informal role  Also called a behavioral role; a role that is developed spontaneously within a group.
information hunger  The audience's need for the information contained in the pre­sentation.
information literacy  The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and effectively use the information needed.
information overload  Providing much more information than the audience can absorb in amount, complexity, or both.
information relevance  The importance, novelty, and usefulness of the information to the audience.
informative content  The main points and sub-points, illustrations, and examples used to clarify and inform.
integration orientation  Organizations that help to mediate and resolve discord among members of society.
interaction management  Establishing a smooth pattern of interaction that allows a clear flow between topics and ideas.
intercultural communication  The exchange of information between individuals who are unalike culturally.
internal references  Brief notations indicating a bibliographic reference that contains the details you are using in your speech.
interpersonal communication  The process of using messages to generate meaning between at least two people in a situation that allows mutual opportunities for both speaking and listening.
interpersonal communication  The process of using messages to generate meaning between at least two people in a situation that allows mutual opportunities for both speaking and listening.
interpersonal relationships  Associations between two people who are interdependent, who use some consistent patterns of interaction, and who have interacted for an extended period of time.
interpretive perception  Perception that involves a blend of internal states and external stimuli.
intrapersonal communication  The process of using messages to generate meaning within the self.
introduction  The first part of your presentation, where you fulfill the five functions of an introduction.
jargon  The technical language developed by a professional group.
job description  A document that defines the job in terms of its content and scope.
key-word outline  An outline consisting of important words or phrases to remind you of the content of the presentation.
kinesics  The study of bodily movements, including posture, gestures, and facial expressions.
laissez-faire leaders  Leaders who take almost no initiative in structuring a group discussion.
language  A collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate.
lay testimony  Statements made by an ordinary person that substantiate or support what you say.
leadership  A process of using communication to influence the behaviors and attitudes of others to meet group goals.
lecture cues  Verbal or nonverbal signals that stress points or indicate transitions between ideas during a lecture.
lecture listening  The ability to listen to, mentally process, and recall lecture information.
listening for enjoyment  Situations involving relaxing, fun, or emotionally stimulating information.
listening  The active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. It involves the ability to retain information, as well as to react empathically and/or appreciatively to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.
long-range goal  What you expect to achieve by your message in the days, months, or years ahead.
long-term memory  Our permanent storage place for information including but not ­limited to past experiences; language; ­values; knowledge; ­images of people; memories of sights, sounds, and smells; and even fantasies.
low self-monitors  Individuals who communicate with others with little attention to the responses to their messages.
low-context (LC) cultures  Cultures like the United States and Scandinavia, in which communication tends to be centered on the source, with intentions stated overtly and with a direct verbal style.
main points  The most important points in a presentation; indicated by Roman numerals in an outline.
maintenance functions  Behaviors that focus on the interpersonal relationships among group members.
manuscript mode  Delivery of a presentation from a script of the entire speech.
mass communication  The process of using messages to generate meanings in a mediated system, between a source and a large number of unseen receivers.
meaning  The understanding of the message.
memorized mode  Delivering a presentation that has been committed to memory.
message  The verbal or nonver­bal form of the idea, thought, or feeling that one person (the source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of people (the receivers).
metaphors  A means to understanding and experiencing one thing in terms of another.
microtargeting  A method of bringing national issues down to the individual level.
Monroe Motivated Sequence  A problem-solving format that encourages an audience to become concerned about an issue; especially appropriate for a persuasive presentation.
M-time  The monochronic time schedule, which compartmentalizes time to meet personal needs, separates task and social dimensions, and points to the future.
narrating  The oral presentation and interpretation of a story, a description, or an event; includes dramatic reading of prose or poetry.
network  An intricate web of contacts and relationships designed to benefit the participants.
noise  Any interference in the encoding and decoding processes that reduces message clarity.
nonverbal codes  All symbols that are not words, including bodily movements, use of space and time, clothing and adornments, and sounds other than words.
nonverbal codes  Codes of communication consisting of symbols that are not words, including non-word vocalizations.
nonverbal communication  The process of using messages that are not words to generate meaning.
norms  Informal rules for group interaction created and sustained through communication.
objectics  Also called object language; the study of the human use of clothing and other artifacts as nonverbal codes.
objective statement  An articulation of your goals.
operational definition  A definition that identifies something by revealing how it works, how it is made, or what it consists of.
operational definition  Defines by explaining a process.
organizational communication  The ways in which groups of people both maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual ­actors the freedom to accomplish their goals.
organizational patterns  Arrangements of the contents of a presentation.
organizations  Social collectives, or groups of people, in which activities are coordinated to achieve both individual and collective goals.
outline  A written plan that uses symbols, margins, and content to reveal the order, importance, and substance of a presentation.
paralinguistic features  The non-word sounds and nonword characteristics of language, such as pitch, volume, rate, and quality.
parallel form  The consistent use of complete sentences, clauses, phrases, or words in an outline.
paraphrasing  Restating another person's message by rephrasing the content or intent of the message.
pattern-maintenance orientation  Organizations that promote cultural and educational regularity and development within society.
pause  The absence of vocal sound used for dramatic effect, transition, or emphasis.
perception  The process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses.
perceptual constancy  The idea that your past experiences lead you to see the world in a way that is difficult to change; your initial perceptions persist.
personal experience  Use of your own life as a source of information.
personal idioms  Unique forms of expression and language understood only by individual couples.
personal inventory  An analysis of your own reading, viewing, and listening habits and behavior to discover topics of personal interest.
persuasive presentation  A message designed to strategically induce change in an audience.
phatic communication  Communication that is used to establish a mood of sociability rather than to communicate information or ideas.
pitch  The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
pitch  The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
plagiarism  The intentional use of information from another source without crediting the source.
politeness  Our efforts to save face for others.
political orientation  Organizations that generate and distribute power and control within society.
power  Interpersonal influence that forms the basis for group leadership.
pragmatics  The study of language as it is used in a social context, including its effect on the communicators.
problem/solution pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter describes a problem and proposes a solution to that problem.
process  An activity, exchange, or set of behaviors that occurs over time.
profanity  Language that is disrespectful of things sacred.
pronunciation  The act of correctly articulating words.
proof  Evidence that the receiver believes.
proposition of fact  An assertion that can be proved or disproved as consistent with reality.
proposition of policy  A proposal of a new rule.
proposition of value  A statement of what we should embrace as more important to our culture.
proxemics  The study of the human use of space and distance.
proximity  The principle that objects physically close to each other will be perceived as a unit or group.
proximity  The location, distance, or range between persons and things.
P-time  The polychronic time schedule, which views time as "contextually based and relationally oriented.
public communication  The process of using messages to generate meanings in a situation in which a single source transmits a message to a number of receivers.
questionnaire  A set of written questions developed to obtain demographic and attitudinal information.
quid pro quo sexual harassment  A situation in which an employee is offered a reward or is threatened with punishment based on his or her participation in a sexual activity.
racist language  Language that insults a group because of its skin color or ethnicity.
rate  The pace of your speech.
rate  The speed at which speech is delivered, normally between 125 and 190 words per minute.
rebuttal  Arguing against someone else's position on an issue.
receiver  A message target.
reference librarian  A librarian specifically trained to help you find sources of information.
reflexivity  Being self-aware and learning from interactions with the intent of improving future interactions.
regionalisms  Words and phrases specific to a particular region or part of the country.
regulation  Nonverbal codes are used to monitor and control interactions with others.
regulators  Nonverbal movements that control the flow or pace of communication.
rejection  Feedback in which others treat you in a manner that is inconsistent with your self-definition.
relational deterioration  In Knapp's model the process by which relationships disintegrate.
relational development  In Knapp's model the process by which relationships grow.
relational maintenance  In Knapp's model the process of keeping a ­relationship together.
relationship-oriented groups  Also called primary groups; groups that are usually long-term and exist to meet our needs for inclusion and affection.
relaxation approach  Combining deep ­relaxation with fear-­inducing thoughts.
repetition  The same message is sent both verbally and nonverbally.
responsiveness  The idea that we tend to select our friends and loved ones from people who demonstrate positive interest in us.
rhetorical questions  Questions asked for effect, with no answer expected.
rituals  Formalized patterns of actions or words followed regularly.
role  A consistent pattern of interaction or behavior exhibited over time.
role  The part an individual plays in a group; an individual's function or expected behavior.
rough draft  The preliminary organization of the outline of a presentation.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis  A theory that our perception of reality is ­determined by our thought processes and our thought processes are limited by our language and, therefore, that language shapes our reality.
schema  Organizational "filing systems" for thoughts held in long-term memory.
search engine  A program on the Internet that allows users to search for information.
second-person observation  A report of what another person observed.
selective attention  The sustained focus we give to stimuli we deem important.
selective attention  The tendency, when you expose yourself to information and ideas, to focus on certain cues and ignore others.
selective exposure  The tendency to expose yourself to information that reinforces, rather than contradicts, your beliefs or opinions.
selective perception  The tendency to see, hear, and believe only what you want to see, hear, and believe.
selective retention  The tendency to remember better the things that reinforce your beliefs rather than those that oppose them.
self-actualization  According to Maslow, the fulfillment of one's potential as a person.
self-centered functions  Behaviors that serve the needs of the individual at the expense of the group.
self-disclosure  The process of making intentional revelations about yourself that others would be unlikely to know and that generally constitute private, sensitive, or confidential information.
self-esteem  The feeling you have about your self-concept; that is, how well you like and value yourself.
self-fulfilling prophecy  The idea that you behave and see yourself in ways that are consistent with how others see you.
self-image  The picture you have of yourself; the sort of person you believe you are.
self-managed approach  Reducing the fear of presenting with self-­diagnosis and a variety of therapies.
self-serving bias  In assessing ourselves, the tendency to attribute our own successes to our personal qualities and our failures to the circumstances.
semantics  The study of the way humans use language to evoke meaning in others.
sentence outline  An outline consisting entirely of complete sentences.
separation goal  The marginalized group relates as exclusively as possible with its own group and as little as possible with the dominant group.
sexist language  Language that excludes individuals on the basis of gender.
sexual harassment  Unwelcome, unsolicited, repeated behavior of a sexual nature.
short-term memory  A temporary storage place for information.
signposts  Ways in which a presenter signals to an audience where the presentation is going.
similarity  The principle that elements are grouped together because they share attributes such as size, color, or shape.
similarity  The idea that our friends and loved ones are usually people who like or dislike the same things we do.
skills approach  Reducing fear by systematically improving your presenting skills.
slang  A specialized language of a group of people who share a common interest or belong to a similar co-culture.
sleeper effect  A change of audience opinion caused by the separation of the message content from its source over a period of time.
small-group communication  Interaction among three to nine people working together to achieve an interdependent goal.
small-group communication  The process of using messages to generate meaning in a small group of people.
source  A message initiator.
source credibility  The extent to which the speaker is perceived as competent to make the claims he or she is making.
source credibility  The audience's perception of your effectiveness as a speaker.
stakeholders  Groups of people who have an interest in the actions of an organization.
statistics  Numbers that summarize numerical information or compare quantities.
strategic ambiguity  The purposeful use of symbols to allow multiple interpretations of messages.
subjective perception  Your uniquely constructed meaning attributed to sensed stimuli.
subpoints  The points in a presentation that support the main points; indicated by capital letters in an outline.
substitution  Nonverbal codes are used instead of verbal codes.
supporting materials  Information you can use to substantiate your arguments and to clarify your position.
supportive communication  Listening with empathy, acknowledging others' feelings, and engaging in dialogue to help others maintain a sense of personal control.
surveys  Studies in which a limited number of questions are answered by a sample of the population to discover opinions on issues.
syllogism  A logical structure that contains a major premise (a generalization) applied to a particular instance (a minor premise) that leads to a conclusion.
symbolic interactionism  The process in which the self develops through the messages and feedback received from others.
symmetrical relationships  Relationships in which participants mirror each other or are highly similar.
synonym  Defines by using a word close or similar in meaning to the one you are trying to define.
syntax  The way in which words are arranged to form phrases and sentences.
tactile communication  The use of touch in communication.
task functions  Behaviors that are directly relevant to the group's task and that affect the group's productivity.
task-oriented groups  Also called secondary groups; groups formed for the purpose of completing tasks, such as solving problems or making decisions.
testimonial evidence  Written or oral statements of others' experience used by a speaker to substantiate or clarify a point.
tests of evidence  Questions that can be used to test the validity of evidence.
time-sequence pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter explains a sequence of events in chronological order.
topical-sequence pattern  A method of organization that emphasizes the major reasons an audience should accept a point of view by addressing the advantages, disadvantages, qualities, and types of person, place, or thing.
transition  A bridge between sections of a presentation that helps the pre­senter move smoothly from one idea to another.
trustworthiness  The degree to which the speaker is perceived as honest, fair, sincere, honorable, friendly, and kind; an aspect of credibility.
two-sided argument  A source advocating one position presents an argument from the opposite viewpoint and then goes on to refute that argument.
ultimate goal  A statement of purposes that could be achieved with continuing attempts to persuade.
uncertainty-accepting cultures  Cultures that tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
uncertainty-rejecting cultures  Cultures that have difficulty with ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
upward communication  Messages flowing from subordinates to superiors.
value  A deeply rooted belief that governs our attitude about something.
verbal citations  Oral explanations of who the source is, how recent the information is, and what the source's qualifications are.
verbal codes  Symbols and their grammatical ­arrangement, such as languages.
visual resources  Any items that can be seen by an audience for the purpose of reinforcing a message.
visualization approach  Picturing yourself succeeding.
vocal cues  All of the oral aspects of sound except words themselves.
vocal variety  Vocal quality, intonation patterns, inflections of pitch, and syllabic duration.
vocalized pauses  Breaks in fluency that negatively affect an audience's perception of the speaker's competence and dynamism.
voluntary audience  A collection of people who choose to listen to a particular speaker or speech.
within-group diversity  The presence of observable and/or implicit differences among group members.
working memory  The part of our consciousness that interprets and assigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention to.

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