When psychologists speak of life-span development, they are referring to an approach that emphasizes:
|A)||child development, specifically.|
|B)||humanity's historical development.|
|C)||only the periods of the human life span involving growth.|
|D)||the periods of the human life span involving both growth and decline.|
Whether or not intellectual skills can still be improved through education for individuals in their 70s is a question of __________.
|A)||normative age-graded influence|
|D)||normative life events|
Developmental psychologists suggest that some characteristics develop and change over time. Which characteristic of development does this suggest?
|A)||Development is contextual.|
|B)||Development is plastic.|
|C)||Development is studied by a number of disciplines.|
|D)||Development is multidirectional.|
Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life and are usually not applicable to many people are called __________.
|A)||normative history-graded influences|
|B)||normative age-graded influences|
|C)||nonnormative life events|
|D)||none of these|
Sociocultural contexts include five important concepts: context, culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Which of these five concepts could be defined as "the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation"?
|D)||none of these|
Psychologists have learned that the ability to control one's environment can have a powerful effect on a person's health. They have also learned that poor health can influence intellectual functioning. This is an example of:
|A)||a biological process.|
|B)||a cognitive process.|
|C)||a social process.|
|D)||the joint influence of biological and cognitive processes.|
Which of the following is NOT an example of a cognitive process?
|A)||an infant watching a colorful mobile swing above his crib|
|B)||an adolescent solving a crossword puzzle|
|C)||an infant's smile in response to her mother's touch|
|D)||a child memorizing a poem|
Which of the following statements regarding developmentalists and their positions on the issues of nature–nurture, continuity–discontinuity, and stability–change is TRUE?
|A)||Most developmentalists recognize that taking extreme positions on these issues is unwise.|
|B)||Developmentalists are in agreement regarding how strongly development is influenced by each of these factors.|
|C)||There is little debate among developmentalists on these issues.|
|D)||all of these|
The process we refer to when we speak of changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language is the _________ process.
The most important issues in the study of development include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
|A)||nature and nurture|
|B)||continuity and discontinuity|
|C)||stability and change|
|D)||masculinity and femininity|
Freud is associated with which theoretical perspective?
|C)||behavioral and social cognitive|
Which psychologist contended that "trust versus mistrust" is the first psychological stage?
The criticisms of psychoanalytic theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
|A)||the sexual underpinnings of development are given too much importance.|
|B)||the unconscious mind is given too much credit for influencing development.|
|C)||much of the data used to support its theories comes from individual's reconstruction of the past and are of unknown accuracy.|
|D)||there is skepticism about the pureness of Piaget's stages.|
The theory that emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it is called the _________ theory.
|A)||situated and collaborative|
Which of the following is an assumption of Vygotsky's perspective on development?
|A)||Children do not adapt their thinking to new ideas via the processes of assimilation and accommodation.|
|B)||Children's cognitive skills cannot be understood when they are only developmentally analyzed and interpreted.|
|C)||Cognitive skills are not mediated by words, language, and forms of discourse.|
|D)||Cognitive skills do not have their origins in social relations.|
Who was the psychologist responsible for originating the theory of attachment?
|D)||none of these|
__________ is to operant conditioning, as __________ is to social cognitive theory.
According to Bronfenbrenner's theory, the macrosystem is __________.
|A)||the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course|
|B)||the culture in which individuals live|
|C)||involved when experiences in another social setting influence what the individual experiences in an immediate context|
|D)||the overarching system which includes all of these factors and more|
Which type of research method involves an in-depth look at one individual?
Which research strategy simultaneously compares individuals of different ages?