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Achilles tendonitis  An inflammation of the Achilles tendon that typically arises from overuse. It is characterized by pain and inflammation over the tendon.
Fick angle  The angle that is created by the foot and the sagittal axis of the body. It measures how much the foot toes out (increased angle) or toes in (decreased angle). The normal range is 12° to 18°.
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)  Pain along the posteromedial aspect of the distal third of the tibia arising from an overuse injury.
Plantar fasciitis  An inflammation of the plantar fascia caused by either an individual traumatic incident or repeated microtraumas over a period of time. It is characterized by sharp pain with the first few steps in the morning or after a long period of non-weight bearing.
Sharpey's fibers  Direct extensions of dense, irregular connective tissue from the periosteum into compact bone. The fibers function to anchor tendons to bone.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome  A nerve entrapment syndrome that affects the posterior tibial nerve as it passes through the tarsal tunnel.
Tendonosis  A degeneration of the collagen matrix within the tendon, caused by a repeated cycle of insults and partial healing that leads to an overall breakdown of the tissue.
Windlass mechanism  A mechanical model that provides an explanation of how the plantar fascia supports the foot during weight-bearing activities. As the foot moves into dorsiflexion and the toes extend during gait, the plantar fascia is wound around the heads of the metatarsals. This shortens the plantar fascia and elevates the medial longitudinal arch.

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