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America Before Columbus

  1. Identify and describe the elaborate native civilizations that developed in South and Central America and Mexico.
  2. Describe the way of life of the North American Indians—where they lived and how they supported themselves.
  3. Describe the changes taking place among North American Indians during the century before Europeans arrived.
  4. How were efforts to determine the pre-Columbian population of America tied to the larger debate over the consequences of European settlement of the Western Hemisphere?

Europe Looks Westward

  1. What changes stimulated Europeans to look toward new lands?
  2. What did Columbus hope to achieve through his voyages, and what did he actually accomplish?
  3. Why did the conquistadors seek to eliminate the underpinnings of existing American civilizations? How was this destruction accomplished?
  4. Explain the relationship between the Spanish and the Pueblo Indians. How did this relationship shape the development of New Mexico?
  5. Describe the demographic differences between the Spanish Empire in America and the empires to the north. What impact did European diseases have on colonization efforts?
  6. What did Europeans gain from the Indians that proved more important than gold?
  7. What did the intermarriage of Spanish and North Americans reveal about the Spanish colonial system and suggest about the Europeans who administered it?
  8. What role did the Catholic Church play in Spanish colonization efforts?
  9. Describe the cultures from which African slaves were taken and brought to America.
  10. How did the African slave trade originate, and how did it evolve?
  11. In what ways did the New World play a part in the development of the Atlantic World?
  12. What commercial factors contributed to England's decision to seek colonies in the New World?

The Arrival of the English

  1. How did the English Reformation differ from that of Luther and Calvin? Why did it fail to satisfy the religious desires of many English people?
  2. What did the Puritans wish to accomplish, and why did they clash with James I?
  3. How did the English colonization of Ireland influence the way in which the English colonized America?
  4. Where did the French and Dutch establish colonies in North America, and how did their efforts differ from those of the Spanish and the English?
  5. What inspired the English to get into the race for the colonies?
  6. Describe the colonization efforts of Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh.
  7. How did James I settle the rivalry between London and Plymouth merchants over the exploration of North America?

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