America Before Columbus
- Identify and describe the elaborate native civilizations that developed in South and Central America and Mexico.
- Describe the way of life of the North American Indians—where they lived and how they supported themselves.
- Describe the changes taking place among North American Indians during the century before Europeans arrived.
- How were efforts to determine the pre-Columbian population of America tied to the larger debate over the consequences of European settlement of the Western Hemisphere?
Europe Looks Westward
- What changes stimulated Europeans to look toward new lands?
- What did Columbus hope to achieve through his voyages, and what did he actually accomplish?
- Why did the conquistadors seek to eliminate the underpinnings of existing American civilizations? How was this destruction accomplished?
- Explain the relationship between the Spanish and the Pueblo Indians. How did this relationship shape the development of New Mexico?
- Describe the demographic differences between the Spanish Empire in America and the empires to the north. What impact did European diseases have on colonization efforts?
- What did Europeans gain from the Indians that proved more important than gold?
- What did the intermarriage of Spanish and North Americans reveal about the Spanish colonial system and suggest about the Europeans who administered it?
- What role did the Catholic Church play in Spanish colonization efforts?
- Describe the cultures from which African slaves were taken and brought to America.
- How did the African slave trade originate, and how did it evolve?
- In what ways did the New World play a part in the development of the Atlantic World?
- What commercial factors contributed to England's decision to seek colonies in the New World?
The Arrival of the English
- How did the English Reformation differ from that of Luther and Calvin? Why did it fail to satisfy the religious desires of many English people?
- What did the Puritans wish to accomplish, and why did they clash with James I?
- How did the English colonization of Ireland influence the way in which the English colonized America?
- Where did the French and Dutch establish colonies in North America, and how did their efforts differ from those of the Spanish and the English?
- What inspired the English to get into the race for the colonies?
- Describe the colonization efforts of Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh.
- How did James I settle the rivalry between London and Plymouth merchants over the exploration of North America?