______ are molecules that stimulate a response by T and B cells.
Place the following stages of immune function in the proper order according to Clonal Selection Theory.
|A)||lymphocyte development and differentiation, presentation of antigens, challenge of B and T lymphocytes, T-lymphocyte response, and the production and activities of antibodies by B lymphocytes|
|B)||challenge of B and T lymphocytes, lymphocyte development and differentiation, presentation of antigens, the production and activities of antibodies by B lymphocytes, and T-lymphocyte response|
|C)||the production and activities of antibodies by B lymphocytes lymphocyte development and differentiation, presentation of antigens, challenge of B and T lymphocytes, and T-lymphocyte response|
|D)||challenge of B and T lymphocytes, presentation of antigens, the production and activities of antibodies by B lymphocytes, lymphocyte development and differentiation, and T-lymphocyte response|
|B)||are activated by TH interaction.|
|C)||are associated with cell-mediated immunity.|
|D)||activate the CMI pathway.|
An immunoglobulin is made up of four polypeptide chains, two heavy and two light. The hypervariable region which binds the antigen lies
|A)||in the FAb|
|B)||in the FC|
|C)||on the heavy chains|
|D)||on the light chains|
Surface receptors on immune system cells function in
|A)||identification of self/non-self.|
|D)||all of the above.|
"Self" markers in human cells
|A)||are lipopolysaccharides of the GALT.|
|B)||are glycoproteins of the MHC.|
|C)||are identical between individuals.|
|D)||are clonally selected.|
_______ are large glycoprotein molecules that serve as the specific receptors of B cells and as antibodies.
|C)||Human cell markers|
|A)||mature in the bone marrow.|
|B)||circulate in low numbers in the blood.|
|D)||function in helping other immune cells.|
Materials that work well as immunogens include
|A)||proteins, lipoproteins, polysaccharides|
|B)||glycoproteins, DNA, RNA|
|C)||lipopolysaccharides, haptens, monosaccharides|
|D)||small molecules, simple molecules, and repetitive molecules|
The portion of a molecule which elicits an immune response is called
|A)||are extremely large molecules.|
|B)||cannot be immunogenic even when attached to a larger substance.|
|C)||can attach to substances such as host serum lipids.|
|D)||act when attached to a larger carrier to trigger immune responses.|
Antigen presenting cells include
|A)||macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells|
|B)||T cells, B cells, mast cells|
|C)||memory cells, macrophages, TC cells|
|D)||plasma cells, mast cells, immunoglobin cells|
During clonal selection and antigen binding
|A)||the B cell interacts with the attached microbe.|
|B)||the B cell interacts with a T helper cell.|
|C)||the T cell gives off interleukins.|
|D)||B cells recognize microbes and their foreign antigens.|
This immunoglobulin gives long-term immunity and is associated with memory response.
The only immunoglobin that is secreted outside of tissues (found in tears, saliva, mucus, and colostrums), secretory is a dimer held together by a J chain.
_________ are the result of B cell activation and secrete specific antibody. They are large, specialized, and the most numerous of B cell progeny.
______ is the capacity of certain T cells to kill a specific target cell.
The anamnestic response to an antigen results from
|A)||a latent period.|
|B)||prior antigen exposure.|
|C)||TC cell activity.|
"Cell mediated immunity" refers to
|A)||B cell activation and plasma cell production.|
|C)||T cell responses to antigen.|
|D)||MHC markers on "self" cell surfaces.|
Protection from infection obtained through medical procedures is called
Artificial passive immunity usually involves administration of
|A)||an antigen to stimulate antibody production.|
|C)||an attenuated vaccine.|
|D)||a live preparation vaccine.|
Active immunization is synonymous with
An advantage of attenuated live preparations in vaccines is that
|A)||viable microorganisms can multiply and produce infections and mild cases of the disease.|
|B)||they confer short-lasting protection.|
|C)||they usually require more doses.|
|D)||they usually require fewer boosters.|
Vaccines typically can use any of the following EXCEPT
|A)||killed microbes or microbe parts.|
|B)||live, attenuated microbes.|
|C)||live, virulent microbes.|
|D)||genetically engineered microbes.|
Which of the following is NOT a function of antibodies?
The two features that most characterize the third line of defense are sensitivity and memory.
The Clonal Selection Theory says that early undifferentiated monocytes in the embryo and fetus undergo a continuous series of divisions and genetic changes that generate hundreds of millions of different cell types, each carrying a particular receptor specificity.
Immunogens are proteins or other complex molecules of high molecular weight that trigger the immune response in the host.
APCs function by binding foreign antigen to their cell surfaces for presentation to neutrophils for phagocytosis.
The memory response means that the second exposure to an antigen calls forth a much faster and more vigorous response than the first.
Attenuation is any process that kills a virus or bacteria to negate its virulence during vaccine production.
Vaccination programs seek to protect the individual directly through raising the antibody titer and indirectly through the development of herd immunity.