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Multiple Choice Quiz
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Read each question carefully and then select the best answer.

1
Stanley Milgram used the term conformity to mean
A)going along with peers.
B)compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
C)the techniques and strategies used to prevent deviant behavior in any society.
D)the penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
2
According to the text, almost one out of every ____ adult Americans is subject to some type of correctional supervision—jail, prison, probation, or parole—every year.
A)30
B)40
C)50
D)60
3
_____ states have granted citizens the right to use marijuana for medical purposes.
A)Five
B)Eight
C)Thirteen
D)Fifteen
4
Which sociological theory suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society's norms?
A)feminist theory
B)control theory
C)interactionist theory
D)functionalist theory
5
Which sociologist coined the term stigma to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups?
A)Charles Horton Cooley
B)George Herbert Mead
C)Émile Durkheim
D)Erving Goffman
6
In which of Merton's modes of individual adaptation would one accept institutionalized means, but reject societal goals?
A)innovation
B)ritualism
C)retreatism
D)rebellion
7
Which sociologist first advanced the idea that an individual undergoes the same basic socialization process whether learning conforming or deviant acts?
A)Robert Merton
B)Edwin Sutherland
C)Travis Hirschi
D)William Chambliss
8
What term did sociologist Daniel Bell use to describe the sequential passage of organized crime leadership from Irish Americans in the early part of the 20th century to Jewish Americans in the 1920s and then to Italian Americans in the early 1930s?
A)ethnic succession
B)victimless crime
C)differential association
D)routine activities
9
Which sociologist coined the term white-collar crime?
A)Robert Merton
B)Erving Goffman
C)Edwin Sutherland
D)Charles Horton Cooley
10
Society brings about acceptance of basic norms through techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behavior. This process is termed
A)stigmatization.
B)labeling.
C)law.
D)social control.
11
Which of the following is NOT an example of informal social control?
A)jail
B)laughter
C)raising of an eyebrow
D)ridicule
12
Police officers, school administrators, employers, and managers of movie theaters are all instruments of
A)informal social control.
B)formal social control.
C)the state.
D)the government.
13
Which of the following statements about deviance is true?
A)Deviance is always criminal behavior.
B)Deviance is behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
C)Deviance is perverse behavior.
D)Deviance is inappropriate behavior that cuts across all cultures and social orders.
14
What term did Émile Durkheim use to refer to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective?
A)stigma
B)functionalism
C)anomie
D)labeling
15
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic forms of adaptation specified in Robert Merton's anomie theory of deviance?
A)conformity
B)innovation
C)ritualism
D)hostility
16
Labeling theory is also called the _____________ approach.
A)conflict
B)functionalist
C)societal-reaction
D)stigmatization
17
Labeling theory closely ties into the __________ perspective.
A)stigmatization
B)functionalism
C)cultural transmission
D)conflict
18
Which sociologist emphasizes that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality?
A)Max Weber
B)Richard Quinney
C)Karl Marx
D)Robert Merton
19
What is white-collar crime?
A)The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs.
B)Illegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often by affluent, "respectable" people.
C)Crime that occurs across multiple national borders.
D)The willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services.







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