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Multiple Choice
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While the __________ view of stress focuses on the situations which cause stress, the __________ view of stress focuses on the physiological changes which occur when someone encounters a challenging situation.
A)environmental; biological
B)old; modern
C)psychological; biological
D)stimulus; response
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRSS) measures stress by
A)summing up the stress ratings of life-changing events an individual is experiencing.
B)quantifying the stress of shifting social relationships.
C)measuring heart rate, galvanic skin response, and other physiological responses to stress.
D)quantifying the stressful toll of daily hassles.
A drawback of stress measures which attempts to quantify stress in terms of the number and magnitude of stressful stimuli is
A)not objective.
B)provides data which is difficult to analyze.
C)fails to take an individual's interpretations and responses to the stimuli into account.
D)hard to administer.
Lazarus and Folkman propose two kinds of stress-relevant appraisal: A(n) __________ appraisal in which an individual determines the personal relevance of a stimulus, and a(n) __________ appraisal in which individuals evaluate the resources available to cope with the stress.
A)primary; secondary
B)situational; coping
C)personal; response
D)evaluative; response
When stressful situations produce negative emotions, physiological changes occur in
A)the autonomic nervous system.
B)the brain.
C)the endocrine system.
D)All of these
Which of the following is NOT one of the key structures involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress responses outlined in the text?
A)pituitary gland
C)adrenal glands
D)prefrontal cortex
The adrenal glands serve the function of releasing several stress-related hormones. They are located
A)on top of the kidneys.
B)on top of the liver.
C)within the pancreas.
D)beside the cerebellum.
The release of norepinephrine by the adrenal glands causes
A)increased blood pressure.
B)increased heart rate.
C)increased breathing rate.
D)All of these
__________ are a class of stress-related hormones which control activation of the autonomic nervous system.
The text outlines two major neuroendocrine pathways involved in stress responses and lists three key anatomical structures involved in each pathway. Which of the two anatomical structures below are involved in both pathways?
A)adrenal gland, thalamus
B)adrenal gland, pituitary gland
C)adrenal gland, hypothalamus
D)hypothalamus, pituitary gland
Cortisol has been labeled "the stress hormone," because it is produced under stress and serves the function of making more energy available for responding to stress. Where is the cortisol produced?
A)in the pituitary gland
B)in the hypothalamus
C)in the brainstem
D)in the adrenal cortex
What are the three stages of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
A)general arousal, arousal, sympathetic arousal
B)glucocorticoid response, adrenal response, sympathetic arousal
C)alarm, resistance, exhaustion
D)fight, flight, freeze
In the short term, cortisol helps the body respond to stressful situations by increasing the energy produced in cells. When cortisol levels remain high for extended periods of time, however, cortisol can harm the body by
A)maintaining an unsustainably high heart rate.
B)maintaining and unsustainably high breathing rate.
C)suppressing aspects of immune function.
D)shutting down the adrenal cortex.
Which of the following is a criticism of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome outlined in the text?
A)Selye was very cruel to animals for no good reason.
B)The stress reaction of rats and other rodents tells us very little about human stress.
C)The extreme stressors Selye used in his research are different from the stress typically encountered by humans.
D)There is very little evidence for an "alarm" stage in humans.
This brain structure has a high concentration of cortisol receptors and plays a role in the termination of the HPA axis activation.
C)adrenal gland
D)cingulate gyrus
In high school, Marlo often experienced panic attacks when taking exams. When he started college, he developed a two-part plan to minimize his test anxiety by: (a) preparing for exams by thoroughly studying, and (b) reminding himself he usually performs well and engaging in deep breathing right before the exam. According to Lazarus and Folkman, what two types of coping does Marlo's two-part plan involve?
A)(a) problem-focused coping, and (b) emotion-focused coping
B)(a) proactive coping, and (b) in vivo coping
C)(a) planning, and (b) acting
D)(a) advance coping, and (b) in the moment coping
Research suggests emotional disclosure has the beneficial effect of
A)lowering blood pressure.
B)improving health variables related to HIV/AIDS.
C)improving health variables related to cancer.
D)All of these.
Research examining the health benefits of an optimistic vs. pessimistic view of life indicate
A)pessimists are actually healthier, because they anticipate problems before they occur.
B)optimists have better mental health and may also have better physical health.
C)optimists have better mental health, but pessimists have better physical health.
D)there are no measurable health differences between optimists and pessimists.
In contrast to the direct effects hypothesis, which suggests social support lowers the amount of stressful situations we encounter, the __________ hypothesis suggests social support helps us cope with highly stressful situations.
D)social facilitation
The study of psychosomatics deals with
A)the molecular impact of mental illness on cell bodies.
B)increasing physical performance through mindfulness.
C)how emotional factors influence the occurrence and worsening of disease.
D)the treatment of disease through acupuncture, meditation, and other non-Western approaches.
The physiological reactivity model
A)examines how sustained physiological activation affects the occurrence of disease.
B)examines how social support buffers the experience of stress.
C)examines the effects of health-related behaviors on stress.
D)has fallen out of vogue with most scientists and has been replaced by a psychological reactivity model.
Which of the following is an example of a natural immunity process?
B)the release of antibodies by B lymphocytes
C)the destruction of antigens by T cells
D)All of these.
Cohen and colleagues conducted innovative research examining the relationship between a variety of stress-relevant variables and susceptibility to the common cold. Which of the following statements is true of their research findings?
A)The number of stressors participants experienced predicted their likelihood of getting sick.
B)Participants' perceptions of stress predicted their likelihood of getting sick.
C)Participants who were of lower socioeconomic status were more likely to get sick.
D)All of these.
Impatience, competitiveness, hostility, and time urgency describe
A)the Type A Behavior Pattern
B)the Type B Behavior Pattern
C)variables which increase the probability of death from heart disease.
D)southerner's stereotypical views of northern personality traits.
Which of the following is the only component of the Type A Behavior Pattern which has been shown to predict death from heart disease?
C)time urgency
Sadie weighs less than 70% of what a woman of her height should weigh, yet she feels she is fat. As a result, she eats very little food and continues to lose weight. Which psychological disorder is Sadie likely suffering from?
A)bulimia nervosa
B)anorexia nervosa
C)binge-eating disorder
D)dissociative identity disorder
Making Connections: Research indicates that __________ may slow disease progression in men with HIV.
C)avoidant coping
D)All of these.

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