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Chapter Glossary
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altruism  Motivation to help others without expectation of reward; may involve self-denial or self-sacrifice. 303
authoritarian parenting  In Baumrind's terminology, parenting style emphasizing control and obedience. 301
authoritative parenting  In Baumrind's terminology, parenting style blending warmth and respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values. 301
constructive play  In Smilansky's terminology, second cognitive level of play, involving use of objects or materials to make something; also called object play. 295
corporal punishment  Use of physical force with the intention of causing pain but not injury so as to correct or control behavior. 299
discipline  Methods of molding children's character and of teaching them to exercise self-control and engage in acceptable behavior. 298
dramatic play  Play involving imaginary people or situations; also called fantasy play, pretend play, or imaginative play. 295
formal games with rules  Organized games with known procedures and penalties. 295
functional play  In Smilansky's terminology, lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements; also called locomotor play. 295
gender constancy  Awareness that one will always be male or female. Also called sex-category constancy. 289
gender identity  Awareness, developed in early childhood, that one is male or female. 286
gender roles  Behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex; differs for males and females. 287
gender segregation  Tendency to select playmates of one's own gender. 297
gender stereotypes  Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior. 287
gender-schema theory  Theory, proposed by Bem, that children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female in a particular culture. 290
gender-typing  Socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles. 226, 287
identification  In Freudian theory, process by which a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex. 289
inductive techniques  Disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child's sense of reason and fairness. 299
initiative versus guilt  Erikson's third stage in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with moral reservations that may prevent carrying them out. 285
instrumental aggression  Aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal. 304, 382
overt (direct) aggression  Aggression that is openly directed at its target. 304
permissive parenting  In Baumrind's terminology, parenting style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation. 301
power assertion  Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control. 299
prosocial behavior  Any voluntary behavior intended to help others. 303
psychological aggression  Verbal attack by a parent that may result in psychological harm to a child. 299
real self  Self one actually is. 283
relational (indirect or social) aggression  Aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another person's relationships, reputation, or psychological well-being; can be overt or covert. 304
representational mappings  In neo-Piagetian terminology, second stage in development of self-definition, in which a child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms. 283
self-concept  Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits. 220, 282
self-definition  Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself. 282
self-esteem  Judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth. 283
single representations  In neo-Piagetian terminology, first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms. 282
social cognitive theory  Albert Bandura's expansion of social learning theory; holds that children learn gender roles through socialization. 291
theory of sexual selection  Darwinian theory, which holds that selection of sexual partners is influenced by the differing reproductive pressures that early men and women confronted in the struggle for survival of the species. 288
withdrawal of love  Disciplinary strategy that involves ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child. 299

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