Choose the best answer.
One cubic meter of water has a mass of 1000 kg. During the floods of 1993, the Missouri River reached speeds of up to 10 m s-1. How much kinetic energy would one cubic meter of water have in this case?
|A)||10,000 kg m s-1.|
|B)||100,000 kg m2 s-1.|
|C)||50,000 kg m2 s-1.|
|D)||1,000 kg m2 s-1.|
|E)||50,000 kg m s-1.|
Which layer of the atmosphere is the most meteorologically significant, where almost all of the Earth's 'weather' occurs?
How do plants and trees act as a natural sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide?
|A)||During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen.|
|B)||Wood combustion requires the input of carbon dioxide.|
|C)||Plant matter decomposition requires the input of carbon dioxide, with water and oxygen as a byproduct.|
|D)||Plants convert carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and oxygen through photosynthesis.|
AM and shortwave radio broadcasts can often be heard at great distances from their source locations, especially at night (see for yourself). The layer of the atmosphere that makes this possible is the:
An atomic particle that possesses neither positive nor negative charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom is called a(n):
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are especially dangerous for the following reason(s):
|A)||The chlorine atom in the CFC molecule, upon liberation, can destroy several thousand ozone molecules due to a 'positive' feedback loop.|
|B)||CFCs are very efficient absorbers of radiation, leading to atmospheric warming.|
|C)||CFCs are incredibly toxic and flammable.|
|D)||A and B are correct.|
|E)||A, B, and C are correct.|
Instead of the heavier atoms and molecules settling out of the atmosphere, the atmosphere remains well mixed with respect to its constituents. Why?
|A)||Particles with like charges repel, while those with opposite charges attract.|
|B)||Updrafts and downdrafts.|
|C)||Nearly infinite collisions between molecules of varying sizes.|
|D)||Strong mixing due to uneven surface heating.|
Which of the following is not a property of water?
|A)||Water vapor is responsible for most of the Earth's natural greenhouse effect.|
|B)||Water is the only substance that can exist in all three states over the normal range of surface temperatures and pressures.|
|C)||Atmospheric water is responsible for weather as we know it.|
|D)||Water takes up less volume as it freezes.|
What is the Montreal Protocol?
|A)||A Quebec law requiring signs to be bilingual, with French in larger print.|
|B)||A law limiting the emission of excess greenhouse gases by imposing a maximum speed limit of 100 km h-1 (~60 mph).|
|C)||An international treaty imposing the cessation of production of CFCs and other greenhouse gases in an attempt to curb potential global warming.|
|D)||The treaty regarding Quebec's secession from Canada.|
|E)||None of the above.|
Dry ice is carbon dioxide in solid form. In the process of reverting back to a gas, it does not leave a puddle (hence the term 'dry ice'). This is an example of:
Which of the following processes requires the greatest input of energy to occur?
|A)||Converting one gram of liquid water into steam.|
|B)||Converting one gram of ice into steam.|
|C)||Converting one gram of steam into ice.|
|D)||Converting one gram of liquid water into ice.|
|E)||Converting one gram of ice into liquid water.|
If you hold a sample of air at constant pressure, what happens to its temperature if the container holding the air sample expands?
Why is the mesosphere the coldest layer of the atmosphere?
|A)||A relative lack of molecules to absorb solar radiation.|
|B)||Reflection of solar radiation by the thermosphere.|
|C)||Scattering of terrestrial radiation from the earth's surface.|
|D)||Nonlinear biconstituent diffusion.|
How might an increase in the human population lead to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration?
|A)||Increased fossil fuel combustion for transportation and manufacture.|
|B)||Increased biomass depletion (e.g., clearcutting of rainforests) for human interests.|
|C)||Increased animal population to support human food needs.|
|D)||All of the above.|
|E)||None of these increases atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.|
The ___________ and the __________ are unstable layers of the atmosphere, since temperature decreases with height in them.