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There are several variations of the definition of legalization of drugs. Kleber and Califano argue that legalization policy proposals are
A)establishing an open and free market for drugs.
B)making drugs legal for the adult population, but illegal for minors.
C)having only the government produce and sell drugs.
D)allowing a private market in drugs, but with restrictions on advertising, dosage, and place of consumption.
E)all of the above
Law Enforcement Against Prohibition (LEAP) is an organization of law enforcement officials who believe in drug legalization and regulation. Current and former members of these organizations are members:
A)policemen, prison guards, and military police
B)policemen, prison guards, Drug Enforcement Administration agents, judges and prosecutors
C)policemen, Drug Enforcement Administration agents and Department of Justice Officials
D)judges, prosecutors and state and federal Congress men and women
According to Office of National Drug Control Policy, which country is the second largest leader in cocaine production?
Operation Central Skies, which provides military aid to Central American governments for anti-narcotrafficking operations, is administered by
A)the Department of Homeland Security.
B)the Department of Defense.
C)the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA).
D)a collaboration between the Department of Defense, Central Intelligence Agency and Customs Enforcement.
Bolivia has adopted several policies which allowed the expansion of coca cultivation. The US is trying to advance policies for Bolivian coca farmers which encourage the production of coca for legal uses. These policies have the following desired ends:
A)the development of legal uses for coca
B)increasing the competitiveness of legal uses of coca
C)strengthening local democracy and an increased presence of the State
D)improving social services
E)all of the above
Guatemalan security forces are not allowed full admissions to the School of Americas because
A)of human rights violations.
B)they can not afford to join.
C)they do not have domestic security forces.
D)they are on terrorist alert.
The Money Trail Initiative targets
A)drug and money transportation organizations operating in the United States with the goal of connecting these organizations to sources of drug supply in Mexico.
B)the largest known money laundering system in the world which is responsible for moving $100 million worth of drug proceeds.
C)monetary wires that transmit drug proceeds between the United States and Latin America.
D)the coordination of all US highway interdiction money seizures and related intelligence.
Guatemalan media reported that much of the gadgetry provided by the CIA to Guatemalan military intelligence in the 1990s was used by Ortega Menaldo to
A)help the 80% of Guatemalans who live in poverty.
B)prosecute rebels who oppose the Guatemalan government.
C)increase airport security to limit the smuggling of narcotics.
D)spy on rival cartels.
DrugStar is modeled after
A)Scotland Yard’s interdiction programs.
B)Operation Candy Box.
C)Operation Panama Express.
D)New York Police Department’s CompStat program.
Business attaché to the US Embassy in Guatemala, Stephen MacFarland, stated that the United States is preoccupied with
A)prosecuting human rights violations in Guatemala.
B)increasing trade with sweat shops in Guatemala.
C)parallel powers in Guatemala and their links with narcotrafficking.
D)reducing violence associated with narcotrafficking in Guatemala.
According to the 2005 Monitoring the Future study, youths in the US drink
A)moderately, consuming 1 to 2 drinks once a month.
B)almost never.
C)heavily, consuming 2 drinks per day.
D)intensively, consuming 4 to 5 drinks at one time.
One classic reason that underage drinking laws have not curbed underage drinking are
A)ambivalence among adults with regards to the law.
B)feelings of entitlement among those under 21.
C)glorification of alcohol use among adults.
D)all of the above
According to the Monitoring the Future survey, between 2001 and 2005, annual ecstasy use
A)increased by 52% in 8th-graders, 58% in 10th-graders, and 67% in 12th-graders.
B)decreased by 48% in 8th-graders, 24% in 10th-graders, and only 2% in 12th-graders.
C)decreased by 52% in 8th-graders, 58% in 10th-graders, and 67% in 12th-graders.
D)increased by 4% in 8th-graders, 6% in 10th-graders, and 2% in 12th-graders.
According to Jacob Sullum, who feels that the dangers of club drugs are exaggerated, the aphrodisiac properties of Ecstasy are
A)more sensual than sexual.
B)effective when taken with alcohol.
C)only present when Ecstasy is used within minutes of the sexual activity.
D)more likely to affect females rather than males.
Paul A. Logli, who believes that pregnant drug user should be prosecuted, uses the term cocaine babies to refer to children
A)who are addicted at birth to narcotic substances or otherwise affected by maternal drug use during pregnancy.
B)who are addicted at birth to cocaine only.
C)whose mothers leave cocaine around the house.
D)who are abandoned at the hospital by addicted mothers.
Carolyn Carter, who does not believe that pregnant drug users should be prosecuted, contends that drug screening of pregnant women is unjust because
A)it occurs most often at clinics in low-income neighborhoods.
B)women who are ethnic minorities are more likely to be screened.
C)reporting rates of positive screens were much higher for African American women as compared to white women.
D)all of the above
According to Legrand et al., trying alcohol as a teen is not a predictor of addiction but this factor is
A)the age at which a person tries alcohol – the younger the experimentation the more likely one is to have an addiction problem.
B)the amount of alcohol consumed – the more consumed the first time, the greater chance there is of addiction.
C)the consumption of other harder drugs and alcohol within 3 months of each other.
D)the presence of a parent or authoritative figure for a teen’s first drink.
According to the National Household Study on Drug Use, 3 million Americans have tried heroin in their lifetimes and, of those, 15% had used it in the last year and 4% in the last month. Sullum believes that these statistics indicate that
A)heroin is a highly addictive substance.
B)heroin is more popular than commonly thought.
C)the majority of heroin users do not become addicted or have little difficulty giving it up.
D)the majority of heroin users do not become addicted but those who do struggle to kick the habit.
The Monitoring the Future Study found that anabolic steroid use
A)increased among 8th to 10th graders and decreased among 12th graders.
B)decreased among 8th to 10th graders and increased among 12th graders.
C)increased among 8th to 10th graders and increased among 12th graders.
D)decreased among 8th to 10th graders and decreased among 12th graders.
Anabolic steroids are a legal therapeutic treatment for what condition?
A)eating disorders
B)male pattern baldness
C)excessive acne
D)muscle-wasting conditions
According to Robert A. Levy and Rosalind B. Marimont, the government’s statistics are
A)distorted by sampling errors, bias, and compounding variables.
B)accurate, but the government uses terms that make the dangers seem worse than they are.
C)simply made up.
D)based on data going back to the 1970s.
Studies show that substantial risk of smoking can be reduced if a former smoker quits
A)before the age of 21.
B)before 40.
C)at any time.
D)this is not true - the risk can not be reduced.
The federal Higher Education Act prohibits student loans to people who have been
A)convicted of murder.
B)convicted of sexually assaulting a minor.
C)convicted of a drug offense.
D)proven to have cheated on a test.
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, two changes that have occurred since the 1960s with marijuana use are
A)first time users are older but THC levels are higher.
B)first time users are younger and THC levels are higher.
C)first time users are younger but THC levels are lower.
D)first time users are older and THC levels are lower.
According to Bruce M. Cohen, who believes that the advantages of psychiatric medicines outweigh their disadvantages,
A)the use of drugs to treat psychiatric problems dates back to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks.
B)the use of drugs to treat psychiatric problems goes back to the early 1900s.
C)drug therapy for psychiatric illnesses did not begin until the 1960s.
D)the first drug used to treat emotional problems was morphine.
The serotonin hypothesis is a theory which posits that
A)too much serotonin leads to depression.
B)depression is caused by neurotransmitter system deficits.
C)corporate doctors advance ideas of depression for their own gain.
D)St. Johns wort can effectively increase levels of serotonin in the system naturally.
A 2000 study of trends in coffee consumption performed by the National Coffee Association found that
A)10% of children under the age of 15 drink coffee daily.
B)79% of adults consume coffee.
C)20% of people smoke cigarettes while drinking coffee.
D)46% of people drink 3 or more cups of coffee daily.
Daily caffeine consumption among Americans is estimated to be
A)140 mg, equivalent to 1 cup, for people aged 18 and under and 280 mg, equivalent to 1cup, for people over 18 years of age.
B)280 mg, equivalent to 2-3 cups.
C)420 mg, equivalent to 4-5 cup, for people aged 18 and under and 280 mg, equivalent to 1 cup, for people over 18 years of age.
D)150 mg, equivalent to 1 cup.
At a 1998 conference, Nadine Lambert presented controversial research that found that children who used Ritalin were more likely as adults to
A)be drug users.
B)seek a degree of higher education.
C)have experimented with alcohol at an earlier age.
D)suffer from depression.
Michael Fumento asserts that Ritalin is effective for treating
A)eating disorders.
B)attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
C)bed wetting.
Merrill Matthews, who believes that consumers benefit when prescription drugs are advertised, believes that consumers
A)are well-informed about medical information.
B)are poorly-informed about medical information.
C)are under the illusion that they are well-informed about medical information.
D)do not know where to look for medical information.
There is 1 pharmaceutical representative for how many doctors? How many was it in 1996?
A)4; 12
B)9; 18
C)12; 12
D)18; 6
The 1986 Surgeon’s General report that was dedicated enrirely to issues involving second hand smoke suggested
A)that non-smokers who share an airspace with smokers are not at increased risk for lung cancer.
B)separating smokers from non-smokers within the same airspace eliminated the risk of lung cancer.
C)separating smokers from non-smokers within the same airspace reduced but did not eliminate the risk of lung cancer.
D)children should be removed from homes where at least one parent smokes indoors.
J. B. Copas and J. Q. Shi, who do not believe that nonsmokers should be concerned about the effects of secondhand smoke, indicate that publications
A)are more likely to publish research showing that secondhand smoke is harmful.
B)are unbiased in which research they publish.
C)include antismoking critics on their editorial boards.
D)are paid by antismoking forces to publish only certain research.
According to the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, this percentage of the risk for alcoholism is genetically determined?
A)less than 5%
D)over 75%
Grazyna Zajdow, an Australian lecturer in sociology who writes about alcoholism in the context of Australia, believes that the most prominent narrative for addiction is
There are conflicting perspectives about the view of marijuana. These conflicting perspectives include marijuana being
A)harmful and harmless.
B)a narcotic and a stimulant.
C)more harmful than alcohol and less harmful than alcohol.
D)mood enhancing and mood disturbing.
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine released a study which found that
A)only smoked had medical properties.
B)there is strong evidence for support of medical marijuana for glaucoma and epilepsy and weak evidence of support for ailments characterized by muscle spasticity.
C)smoked marijuana is the best vehicle of delivery of THC.
D)there was conclusive evidence that marijuana had medicinal purposes and no other studies were necessary.
There was a drug testing program established in Indiana schools but it was temporarily terminated because
A)it was too costly.
B)the State appeals court ruled it unconstitutional.
C)it was found not to be an effective prevention strategy.
D)there was an increase in underage alcohol use.
Kern et al. argue that drug testing may actually increase the use of dangerous drugs because
A)they may use drugs that are less detectable.
B)students will become more rebellious.
C)students will not participate in extracurricular activities and, therefore, have more time for dangerous drugs.
D)there will be a reduction in students seeking drug treatment.
According to Ettner et al., drug abuse is also associated with these costs?
A)crime and the justice system
B)infectious diseases, such as HIV and AIDS
C)social programs, such as unemployment and disability
D)all of the above
According to the United Nations International Drug Control Programme report, which one of the following statements about drug treatment is true?
A)Education and increased knowledge can correct drug dependence.
B)Products of drug use, such as arrests and loss of employment, is an important stimuli for people to enter into drug programs.
C)Corrections-oriented approaches alone are very affective for addicted people.
D)An important component of addiction is detoxification and that alone can help treat those with drug addictions.
Evans-Whipp et al. compared Victoria, Australia and Washington State, USA. These two serve as a good comparison because
A)Australian drug policies are generally abstinence-based while US policies are a combination of abstinence and harm-minimization principles.
B)US drug policies are generally abstinence-based while Australian policies are a combination of abstinence and drug testing of school-aged people.
C)US drug policies are generally abstinence-based while Australian policies are a combination of abstinence and harm-minimization principles.
D)Australian drug policies are generally abstinence-based while US policies are a combination of abstinence and drug testing of school-aged people.
According to Rosenbaum, abstinence-only drug messages assume that
A)drug use and drug abuse are the same.
B)marijuana use leads to the use of other harder drugs.
C)drug experimentation is not common among teenagers.
D)all of the above

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