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Multiple Choice Quiz
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1
Formal operational thought differs significantly from concrete operational thought in that formal operational thought:
A)is less idealistic.
B)involves abstract thought.
C)is limited to actual experiences as anchors for thought.
D)involves problem solving through trial-and-error.
2
Adolescents' increased tendency to think about thought itself is an indication of _____ quality of adolescent thought.
A)pragmatic
B)concrete
C)abstract
D)idealistic
3
Which of the following statements is true about hypothetical-deductive reasoning?
A)It develops in the concrete operational stage.
B)It refers to using past-experience and cognitive heuristics to solve problems.
C)It is a part of adolescent egocentrism.
D)It involves devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions.
4
_____ is Piaget's formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.
A)Abstract conceptualization
B)Idealistic thinking
C)Pragmatic reasoning
D)Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
5
_____ argued that adolescent egocentrism has two key components—the imaginary audience and personal fable.
A)Alan Baddeley
B)Robert Sternberg
C)David Elkind
D)John Holland
6
One aspect of Elkind's adolescent egocentrism states that adolescents have a heightened self-consciousness, believing others are as interested in them as they are. Elkind refers to this as:
A)imaginary audience.
B)false-belief syndrome.
C)personal fable.
D)self-absorption syndrome.
7
Personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving:
A)attention-getting behavior.
B)hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
C)a sense of uniqueness and invincibility.
D)speculation about ideal characteristics.
8
Overload of a child's _____ causes incomplete information processing to occur.
A)intermediate memory
B)short-term memory
C)long-term memory
D)working memory
9
Which of the following theorists argued that adolescents have more storage space in short-term memory, which results in fewer errors on such problems as analogies?
A)Deanna Kuhn
B)Robert Sternberg
C)David Elkind
D)Jean Piaget
10
_____ are beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be.
A)Ideals
B)Prejudices
C)Values
D)Metacognitions
11
Which of the following is an example of executive functioning?
A)Regulation of emotions
B)Decision making
C)Attention and perception
D)Memory
12
According to the dual-process model, decision making is influenced by which of the following two systems?
A)analytical and experiential
B)deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning
C)emotions and past experiences
D)divergent and convergent
13
In the dual-process model, the experiential system involves:
A)reflective, detailed, higher-level cognitive analysis about a decision.
B)idealistic and abstract thinking.
C)personal fable and imaginary audience phenomenon.
D)monitoring and managing actual experiences.
14
Which of the following is an example of a service-learning program?
A)Engaging adolescents in activities such as assisting at a child-care center, or cleaning up a vacant lot to make a play area.
B)Teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves and others.
C)Conducting vocational training seminars for students.
D)Conducting life-skills training for students to prevent them from engaging in risk-taking activities.
15
Educator John Dewey identified which of the following methods of moral education?
A)Hidden curriculum
B)Character education
C)Service learning
D)Religious education
16
A direct education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and harming themselves or others is known as:
A)hidden curriculum.
B)character education.
C)cognitive moral education.
D)social moral education.
17
_____ is based on the belief that students should learn to value such aspects of life as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
A)Hidden curriculum
B)Character education
C)Cognitive moral education
D)Social moral education
18
According to the character education approach, a school should:
A)leave the moral education of students to their parents.
B)teach students religious values and practices, to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior.
C)encourage students to define their own values.
D)have an explicit moral code that is clearly communicated to students.
19
Cognitive moral education is:
A)an approach to moral education that emphasizes helping people clarify what their lives are for and what's worth working for.
B)a direct education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy.
C)a concept based on the belief that students should develop such values as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
D)an approach in which students are encouraged to define their own values and understand the values of others.
20
In Erik Erikson's (1968) theory, during adolescence, _____ becomes a central focus.
A)identity development
B)achieving mastery in a craft
C)developing ego-strength
D)academic performance
21
Students experiencing the top-dog phenomenon are most likely to exhibit:
A)high achievement motivation.
B)difficulty with the transition from elementary school to middle school.
C)good relations with teachers.
D)power over other students.
22
The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development recommendations for improving middle schools in the United States includes:
A)lowering the student-to-counselor ratios to 10:1.
B)reducing the involvement of parents and community leaders in schools.
C)developing larger communities in order to improve the scope of interaction.
D)promoting continuity by keeping all class sessions the same length.
23
According to John Holland's personality-type theory, individuals with a realistic personality type:
A)are conceptually and theoretically oriented.
B)show a distaste for unstructured activities.
C)show characteristically "masculine" traits.
D)are likely to be best equipped to enter "people" professions, such as teaching, social work, and counseling.
24
According to Holland's personality-type theory, individuals who energize their verbal abilities toward leading others, dominating individuals, and selling people on issues or products are classified as being:
A)realistic.
B)artistic.
C)conventional.
D)enterprising.
25
According to John Holland's personality-type theory, individuals with a conventional personality type:
A)often avoid interpersonal relations.
B)show a distaste for unstructured activities.
C)show characteristically "masculine" traits.
D)should be oriented toward careers such as art and writing.







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