A distinctive feature of a neuron is its:
|A)||ability to nourish, insulate, help repair damage, and generally support neural functioning.|
|B)||distinctive shape, which looks like twisted tree branches.|
|C)||ability to maintain homeostasis and regulate vital behavior.|
|D)||ability to communicate with other cells and transmit information across relatively long distances.|
A glial cell:
|A)||provides structural support for a neuron.|
|B)||provides nourishment, insulates, and repairs damage to neurons.|
|C)||generally supports neural functioning.|
|D)||All of these|
A myelin sheath:
|A)||cannot prevent messages from short-circuiting one another.|
|B)||decreases the velocity with which the electrical impulses that carry messages travel through the axons.|
|C)||is similar to a casing on a sausage.|
Just after an action potential has passed through a section of the axon, the cell membrane in that region cannot admit positive ions again for a few milliseconds, so:
|A)||the neuron cannot fire again immediately.|
|B)||a second impulse travels along the axon more slowly.|
|C)||the neuron will fire again immediately.|
|D)||the neuron is in a normal resting state.|
The space between two neurons is called a(n):
One class of neurotransmitters consisting of a family of chemicals produced by the brain that are similar in structure to painkilling drugs is:
_________ make it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire, while _________ prevent or decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
|A)||myelinated neurons; nonmyelinated neurons|
|B)||serotonin neurotransmitters; dopamine neurotransmitters|
|C)||excitatory messages; inhibitory messages|
|D)||None of these|
The two main parts of the nervous system are the:
|A)||cerebral hemispheres and corpus callosum.|
|B)||brain and brain stem.|
|C)||autonomic and somatic.|
|D)||central and peripheral.|
_____________ neurons transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system.
Mack watched a doctor take out a tiny hammer and then whack him in the knee. Mack did not think, "He's gonna whack me with that hammer and I'm gonna kick him." Rather, the doctor whacked him and Mack kicked without thinking. This was an autonomic, involuntary response known as a:
A major function of the ________ division of the nervous system is the flight-or-fight response in reaction to a threat.
Victor was walking in the woods when he came across what he thought was a deadly coral snake. His flight-or-fight response kicked in. Then, he realized the snake was really just a harmless king snake, which is similar to the coral snake. He began to calm down when his _________________ system kicked in.
The __________ gland is responsible for the endocrine system's functioning. The brain regulates the internal balance of the body, ensuring that the internal balance of the body is maintained through the __________.
|D)||parathyroid; corpus callosum|
Alex has been having severe memory difficulties of late and his doctor has decided to scan his brain to see what is wrong. He is placed in a machine that measures the biochemical activity of his brain and displays the activity on a color monitor. The brain imaging technique used on Alex is called a(n):
The hindbrain contains all of the following, EXCEPT the:
The reticular formation:
|A)||responds to loud noises.|
|C)||transmits motor information.|
|D)||integrates the right and left sides of the cortex.|
The ______________ jointly controls a variety of basic functions relating to emotions and self-preservation.
|C)||reticular activating system|
The cortex has four major areas or lobes. Which of the following is not a lobe found in the cortex?
Scientists have learned that the brain continually reorganizes itself in a process termed:
|C)||neural regenerative fusion.|
The following gender difference has been noted with the brain:
|A)||males show greater lateralization of language in the left hemisphere, while females show abilities more evenly divided between the two hemispheres.|
|B)||men's brains are somewhat proportionately larger than women's brains.|
|C)||the corpus callosum is somewhat proportionately larger in females than in males.|
|D)||All of these|
_____________ is a procedure in which a person learns to control, through conscious thought, internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rates, skin temperature, sweating, and constriction of particular muscles.