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Practice MidTerm Exam
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While sociology studies __________, social psychology focuses on __________.
A)people in groups and societies; individuals
B)societies; groups
C)how individuals affect each other; differences among individuals
D)society; behavior
When Jill attended a convention recently, she behaved in a manner that seemed totally out of character for her. Social psychologists would likely attribute her inconsistent behavior to
A)previously inhibited personal attitudes.
B)her repressed personality.
C)deeply rooted biological factors.
D)social influences.
As a social psychologist, Dan will most likely be aware that
A)social psychology is a collection of findings about social behavior.
B)social psychologists are highly objective.
C)social psychologists are influenced by their values.
D)values are more likely to differ across cultures than over time.
"Aha!" declared Robert. "I knew all along that better educated soldiers suffer fewer adjustment problems than less educated soldiers." Robert is exhibiting the
A)foresight bias.
B)hindsight bias.
C)self-serving bias.
D)confirmation bias.
Researchers hypothesize that people who drive SUVs are bullies. Researchers set up a hidden camera by a four-point stop sign and observe what kind of car/driver is more likely to stop fully and/or not yield to the other driver's right-of-way. What kind of study is this?
A)a laboratory experiment
B)field research
C)a case study
D)a correlational study
Researchers examined the effects of the number of bystanders on people's likelihood of helping a stranger in distress. Either alone or in the company of others, a subject witnessed an individual in need of help. Researchers then measured how likely the subject was to help the distressed individual. In this example, the number of bystanders would be the
A)independent variable.
B)dependent variable.
C)random variable.
D)confounding variable.
Researchers were interested in the relationship between the amount of aggressive media watched and observable acts of aggressive behavior by children towards others. They separated subjects into three groups: group one watched 5 hours a week of aggressive media; group two watched 10 hours a week of aggressive media; and group three watched 15 hours of aggressive media. Researchers then polled the parents or teachers on the child's observable aggressive behavior. In this example, aggressive behavior would be the
A)independent variable.
B)dependent variable.
C)random variable.
D)confounding variable.
Mary and Steve were getting divorced. The fact that each attributed most of their marital problems to the other demonstrates how
A)self concerns motivate social behavior.
B)social relationships help define who we are.
C)self-interest colors our social judgment.
D)we tend to believe that our emotions can be easily read by others.
Minority groups often define themselves by attending to
A)similarities between themselves and the majority group.
B)the way they are presented in the media as the primary guide to their identity.
C)differences between themselves and the majority group.
D)the similarities they have with other minority groups.
Ted has nightmares about being homeless when he grows up, while Allison dreams of becoming a famous ballerina. These images represent their
A)possible selves.
D)social identities.
You graduated from high school with a 3.8 GPA and always considered yourself smarter than most people. But now that you're in a college, you are finding out that many students had 3.8 GPAs and stellar SATs. You find yourself struggling to keep up, and feel less intelligent as the semesters go by. This is due to
A)social identity.
B)the social comparison effect.
C)self-reference effects.
D)the looking-glass self phenomenon.
Donna and Lori were best friends from second grade until they entered high school. All of a sudden, Donna started blow drying her hair, wearing makeup, became a cheerleader, and excelled academically. One day, Donna called Lori up and said, "I can't be seen with someone like you any more. I am dropping you as a friend." Donna displays
A)secondary gain.
B)translational reactionism.
D)relational transitionism.
People in Florida know that hurricanes happen often during the hurricane season. For this reason, at the beginning of the hurricane season they buy supplies to make sure they can protect their property and families. This planning and preparedness illustrates
A)an external locus of control.
B)an oblique locus of control.
C)a tangential locus of control.
D)an internal locus of control.
Jessica earned an A on her first midterm and told people that she studied hard and deserved the grade. But on her second midterm, she received a D. She told people that she received this score because she was up late socializing, her roommate woke her up early, and she felt sick. This is an example of
A)high self-monitoring.
B)the actor/observer effect.
C)the fundamental attribution error.
D)the self-serving bias.
A student is told to give a speech in favor of the death penalty. After the speech, the class is informed that the speaker was told to present only that side (in favor) of the issue. Even so, students overwhelmingly believed that the speaker believed in the death penalty. This illustrates
A)the actor/observer effect.
B)the self-serving bias.
C)the fundamental attribution error.
Ass a juror, you watch a videotaped confession of a suspect, where the camera is focused on the detective. You are more likely to perceive the confession as coerced, rather than genuine. This is due to the
A)misinformation bias.
B)camera perspective bias.
C)self-serving bias.
D)suspicious schema.
If Lisa told Joan that she was going to meet someone "warm." the odds are that Joan would enjoy her contact with that person. Conversely, if Lisa introduced Joan to someone described as "cold," Joan would most likely not want to talk to the person. This illustrates
A)the suspicious schema.
D)the foot-in-the-door technique.
If, Larry is asked on the first day of class, to write down the grade he expected to receive on his first midterm, he and most of his classmates would most likely write down an A. But, on the first midterm, Larry received a C. This demonstrates
B)bad grading.
C)the self-serving bias.
D)the self-fulfilling prophecy
Andrew looked over the syllabus for his social psychology class and determined that he would have plenty of time to complete his paper if he started writing after the first midterm. As the final week of class drew near, he realized he had been wrong, as his paper was not done yet. Andrew's behavior demonstrates
A)the self-serving bias.
B)the planning fallacy.
C)rosy retrospection.
Jeff is tall and thin, at 6'5". He rolls his eyes every time someone asks him if he is a student athlete on the men's basketball team. Leave me alone he thinks to himself all I want to do is read and write poetry. Just because he is tall, people assume he is a basketball player. This demonstrates
A)the availability heuristic.
B)counterfactual thinking.
C)the representativeness heuristic.
D)an illusory correlation.
If someone cuts you off in traffic according to attribution theory, you are most likely to attribute that person's behavior to __________; if you cut someone else off, you are most likely to attribute your behavior to __________.
A)dispositional factors; dispositional factors
B)dispositional factors; situational factors
C)situational factors; dispositional factors
D)situational factors; situational factors
One way to determine if someone really cares about the environment would be to
A)ask how they voted.
B)ask them about their attitude.
C)see what political party they belong to.
D)look at what kind of car they chose to purchase.
If you are paid $20 to lie to someone versus $1 to tell the same lie to someone, you are less likely to experience cognitive dissonance. Why?
A)the overjustification effect.
B)the insufficient justification effect.
C)the insufficient funds effect.
D)the underjustification effect.
Which of the following best describes the interplay between behavior and attitudes?
A)attitudes predict behavior
B)attitudes do not follow behavior
C)behavior follows attitudes
D)attitudes follow behavior.
Julie asks Stacy if she'd go with her to the store real quick. Stacy agrees, but after picking up some things, Julie says she wants to run three more errands. Reluctantly, Stacy complies. Which technique did Julie use?
A)the go-along-get-along technique.
B)the door-in-the-face technique.
C)the foot-in-the-door technique.
D)the low-ball technique.
Six-year-old Billy enjoys drawing with colored pencils. One day his teacher says she is going to reward him for using the pencils, and she does. What would explain why Billy no longer seems to enjoy using colored pencils?
A)the insufficient justification effect
B)the overjustification effect
C)self-affirmation theory
D)cognitive dissonance theory
The process of persuasion that involves "the movers and the shakers" disseminating information to their expanded social network is called
A)the two-step-flow of communication.
B)the sure-step flow of communication.
C)the media-infusion effect.
D)the mainstream-flow of communication.
As Carol grows up, she learns the proper way to address different people, depending on their age, their relation to her, and their social status. These accepted and expected behaviors are
B)universal friendly norms.
D)universal status norms.
If outgoing and friendly people reproduce more than socially withdrawn and unfriendly people, we should see more outgoing and friendly people in the next generation. This illustrates
B)natural selection.
C)heredity of the species.
An interaction is said to occur when
A)two streets meet.
B)the effect of one factor causes another.
C)two attitudes meet.
D)the effect of one factor depends upon another.
Which of the following is not characteristic of males?
A)They are more likely to have ADHD.
B)They are more likely to be depressed.
C)They are more likely to be able to wiggle their ears.
D)They are more likely to commit suicide.
Evolutionary psychology predicts sex differences with regard to
A)selecting mates.
B)taste preferences for nourishing our bodies.
C)developing calluses where skin meets friction.
D)regulating heat by sweating.
Aggression is influenced by
Young immigrant children often prefer the language and norms of their new peer culture. This is because
A)the parents make them speak the language.
B)they want to pretend they're not immigrants.
C)peer groups have a strong influence in transmitting culture.
D)the norm demands it.
You go out to dinner with three of your good friends. Friends 1 and 2 order dessert. Next, Friend 3 orders dessert. When the waiter gets to you, even though you are dieting, you order dessert. Why?
The "teacher/learner" paradigm, which has been extensively used by researchers to investigate a variety of phenomena, was used by
A)Asch to investigate conformity.
B)Milgram to investigate obedience.
C)Bandura to investigate social learning theory.
D)Zimbardo to investigate the power of the situation.
Milgram's study was criticized for
A)being unscientific.
B)not producing any useable data.
C)being unethical.
D)not furthering the understanding of human behavior.
Groups often reject people who consistently deviate from social roles. These people appear to be unaffected by
A)proximal influence.
B)normative influence.
C)informational influence.
D)qualitative influence.
If your parents tell you that you can't drink until you are 21 years old, you may well go out drinking before then. Psychologists refer to this as
D)reaction formation.
Tim has to make a persuasive speech for one of his classes. Considering the primacy effect, when should he volunteer to make his speech?
C)in the middle
D)second from the end
Social psychologists are most likely to study persuasion using
A)field studies.
B)brief, controlled experiments.
C)correlational studies.
D)long, controlled experiments.
When people are presented with information, and they are naturally analytical or the information is highly involving, they are likely to be persuaded via the __________ route to persuasion. When people are not engaged with the information, or they tend to make snap judgments, they are more likely persuaded via the __________ route.
A)peripheral; central
B)elaborative; peripheral
C)central; peripheral
D)central; elaborative
A small town used a variety of strategies over a six-month period to persuade the residents to stop smoking. At the end of six months, there appeared to be no reduction in cigarette sales. However, a survey one year later showed a significant reduction in cigarette sales which demonstrates
A)the sleeper effect.
B)the power of using a peripheral route to persuasion.
C)the power of using a central route to persuasion.
D)use of social persuasion.
Research on persuasion suggests that
A)people are not generally influenced by attractiveness.
B)people are not generally influenced by speaker credibility.
C)people tend to be influenced by speaker likeability.
D)people are not generally influenced by attractiveness when arguments are emotional.
Which of the following messages is NOT likely to be as persuasive as the others?
A)Messages conveyed by popular and attractive communicators.
B)Messages that appear to be designed to change our attitudes.
C)Messages that arouse strong emotions.
D)Messages presented by communicators who appear to be credible experts.
Virginia Richards is running for public office. Which strategy is most likely to help her win the election?
A)repeated media exposure
B)passive appeals
C)exploiting the recency effect
D)massive mailings to registered voters
Historically, social facilitation referred
A)to both improvements and detriments to performance.
B)only to detriments in performance.
C)only to improved performance.
D)to an effect seen only when more than 10 people were present.
Zajonc argues that social facilitation leads to arousal which enhances
B)the dominant response.
C)the submissive response.
D)the self-presentation response.
When Ingham (1974) told students they were pulling on a rope alone, or that two to five people behind them were pulling as well, he found that they pulled hardest when
A)they believed they were pulling with two people.
B)they believed they were pulling with three people.
C)they believed they were pulling with four or five people.
D)they believed they were pulling alone.
Marcos will be meeting with a group of his employees to design a sensitive strategy for working with highly confidential information. To avoid problems with groupthink, he should
A)encourage critical evaluation.
B)immediately present his position.
C)keep the group working together throughout the whole designing process.
D)discourage input from people outside the group.

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