Of which of the following periods of history is classical theory a product?
|A)||the Middle Ages|
|B)||the Progressive Era|
|D)||the Classical Age|
Which of the following is NOT true of classical criminologists?
|A)||they assumed that human beings could understand the world through the human capacity to observe and to reason|
|B)||they believed that the world and the people in it were divinely-ordained or determined|
|C)||they believed that human beings are completely responsible for their behavior|
|D)||they believed that if you could understand the world and its functioning, then you could change it|
Which of the following is NOT a key feature of positivism?
|A)||positivists focus on cause and effect relationships|
|B)||positivists assume that criminals and noncriminals fundamentally are alike|
|C)||positivists assume that social scientists (including criminologists) can be "objective" or "value-neutral" in their work|
|D)||positivists believe that society is based on consensus, although not on a social contract|
Which of the following body types is more likely to be associated with delinquency?
Which of the following methods has been employed to test the proposition that criminals are genetically different from noncriminals?
|D)||all of the above|
Which of the following theorists might suggest that crime is a means by which some people attempt to satisfy their basic human needs?
Which of the following theorists views crime as one among several different adaptations to the helplessness caused by oppression?
What is the cause of crime for Durkheim?
Which of the following theorists argued that crime is a social fact and a normal aspect of society?
In which of the following theories is the growth of American cities described in ecological terms--through a process of invasion, dominance, and succession?
|D)||social disorganization theory|
According to Merton, how do most people adapt to anomie or strain?
According to Merton, which adaptation to anomie or strain is at the root of most criminal behavior?
13 Who was the first twentieth century criminologist to forcefully argue that criminal b behavior was learned?
What do learning theorists call the removal or reduction of a stimulus that increases or maintains a response?
According to learning theorists, which of the following is a condition of effective punishment?
|A)||escape must be prevented|
|B)||it must be applied consistently and immediately|
|C)||extended periods of punishment should be avoided|
|D)||all of the above are necessary conditions|
For which of the following theories is the key question not why do people commit crime and delinquency, but rather why do people conform?
|A)||the theory of the Chicago School|
|B)||anomie or strain theory|
|D)||social control theory|
With which of the following theorists is modern social control theory most associated?
|A)||Albert J. Reiss|
|C)||F. Ivan Nye|
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, low self-control may cause people to engage in deviant behaviors, including crime and delinquency. For Gottfredson and Hirschi, what is the principal cause of low self-control?
|B)||poor role models|
|C)||ineffective child rearing|
Which of the following theories assumes that crime is a product of power differentials or relative powerlessness in society?
|D)||social control theory|
Which of the following groups of theorists argues that critical criminologists need to redirect their attention to the fear and to the very real victimization experienced by working class individuals?
|A)||British of left realists|
The condition in which actors weigh the potential pleasure of an action versus the possible pain associated with it is ______.
The prevention of people in general or society-at-large from engaging in crime by punishing specific individuals and making examples of them is ______.
|A)||special or specific deterrence|
For Hirschi, proper socialization requires a (an) ______. It consists of (1) attachment to others, (2) commitment to conventional lines of action, (3) involvement in conventional activities, and (4) belief in the moral order and law.
|B)||bond to society|
______ are people characterized by no sense of guilt; no subjective conscience; no sense of right and wrong. They have difficulty forming relationships with other people; they cannot empathize with other people.
In classical criminological thought, ______ means "the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number."
__________ is the prevention of punished persons from committing crime again
|D)||Both B and C|
What is an atavist?
|A)||a person who reverts to a savage type|
|D)||a juvenile who rebels|
Which of the following believed that through imitation, or modeling, a person can learn new responses, such as criminal behavior, by observing others, without performing any overt act or receiving direct reinforcement or reward?
|A)||Edwin H. Sutherland|
|D)||B. F. Skinner|