Site MapHelpFeedbackSelf Quiz
Self Quiz
(See related pages)

1
Of which of the following periods of history is classical theory a product?
A)the Middle Ages
B)the Progressive Era
C)the Enlightenment
D)the Classical Age
2
Which of the following is NOT true of classical criminologists?
A)they assumed that human beings could understand the world through the human capacity to observe and to reason
B)they believed that the world and the people in it were divinely-ordained or determined
C)they believed that human beings are completely responsible for their behavior
D)they believed that if you could understand the world and its functioning, then you could change it
3
Which of the following is NOT a key feature of positivism?
A)positivists focus on cause and effect relationships
B)positivists assume that criminals and noncriminals fundamentally are alike
C)positivists assume that social scientists (including criminologists) can be "objective" or "value-neutral" in their work
D)positivists believe that society is based on consensus, although not on a social contract
4
Which of the following body types is more likely to be associated with delinquency?
A)endomorphic
B)mesomorphic
C)ectomorphic
D)balanced
5
Which of the following methods has been employed to test the proposition that criminals are genetically different from noncriminals?
A)statistical comparisons
B)twins studies
C)adoption studies
D)all of the above
6
Which of the following theorists might suggest that crime is a means by which some people attempt to satisfy their basic human needs?
A)Sigmund Freud
B)H.H. Goddard
C)Abraham Maslow
D)Seymour Halleck
7
Which of the following theorists views crime as one among several different adaptations to the helplessness caused by oppression?
A)Sigmund Freud
B)H.H. Goddard
C)Abraham Maslow
D)Seymour Halleck
8
What is the cause of crime for Durkheim?
A)biological inferiority
B)mental inferiority
C)anomie
D)social disorganization
9
Which of the following theorists argued that crime is a social fact and a normal aspect of society?
A)Emile Durkheim
B)Robert Merton
C)Edwin Sutherland
D)Karl Marx
10
In which of the following theories is the growth of American cities described in ecological terms--through a process of invasion, dominance, and succession?
A)anomie theory
B)functionalist theory
C)labeling theory
D)social disorganization theory
11
According to Merton, how do most people adapt to anomie or strain?
A)conformity
B)innovation
C)ritualism
D)retreatism
12
According to Merton, which adaptation to anomie or strain is at the root of most criminal behavior?
A)conformity
B)innovation
C)ritualism
D)retreatism
13
13 Who was the first twentieth century criminologist to forcefully argue that criminal b behavior was learned?
A)Gabriel Tarde
B)Edwin Sutherland
C)Daniel Glaser
D)Ronald Akers
14
What do learning theorists call the removal or reduction of a stimulus that increases or maintains a response?
A)positive reinforcement
B)negative reinforcement
C)extinction
D)punishment
15
According to learning theorists, which of the following is a condition of effective punishment?
A)escape must be prevented
B)it must be applied consistently and immediately
C)extended periods of punishment should be avoided
D)all of the above are necessary conditions
16
For which of the following theories is the key question not why do people commit crime and delinquency, but rather why do people conform?
A)the theory of the Chicago School
B)anomie or strain theory
C)learning theory
D)social control theory
17
With which of the following theorists is modern social control theory most associated?
A)Albert J. Reiss
B)Jackson Toby
C)F. Ivan Nye
D)Travis Hirschi
18
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, low self-control may cause people to engage in deviant behaviors, including crime and delinquency. For Gottfredson and Hirschi, what is the principal cause of low self-control?
A)social disorganization
B)poor role models
C)ineffective child rearing
D)anomie
19
Which of the following theories assumes that crime is a product of power differentials or relative powerlessness in society?
A)labeling theory
B)conflict theory
C)radical theory
D)social control theory
20
Which of the following groups of theorists argues that critical criminologists need to redirect their attention to the fear and to the very real victimization experienced by working class individuals?
A)British of left realists
B)peacemaking criminologists
C)feminist criminologists
D)traditional criminologists
21
The condition in which actors weigh the potential pleasure of an action versus the possible pain associated with it is ______.
A)praxis
B)ecology
C)hedonistic rationality
D)free will
22
The prevention of people in general or society-at-large from engaging in crime by punishing specific individuals and making examples of them is ______.
A)special or specific deterrence
B)general deterrence
C)praxis
D)utility
23
For Hirschi, proper socialization requires a (an) ______. It consists of (1) attachment to others, (2) commitment to conventional lines of action, (3) involvement in conventional activities, and (4) belief in the moral order and law.
A)social contract
B)bond to society
C)class struggle
D)need hierarchy
24
______ are people characterized by no sense of guilt; no subjective conscience; no sense of right and wrong. They have difficulty forming relationships with other people; they cannot empathize with other people.
A)Atavists
B)Psychopaths
C)Left realists
D)Peacemaking criminologists
25
In classical criminological thought, ______ means "the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number."
A)free will
B)social contract
C)utility
D)patriarchy
26
__________ is the prevention of punished persons from committing crime again
A)General deterrence
B)Special deterrence
C)Specific deterrence
D)Both B and C
27
What is an atavist?
A)a person who reverts to a savage type
B)a noncriminal
C)a sociopath
D)a juvenile who rebels
28
Which of the following believed that through imitation, or modeling, a person can learn new responses, such as criminal behavior, by observing others, without performing any overt act or receiving direct reinforcement or reward?
A)Edwin H. Sutherland
B)Gabriel Tarde
C)Albert Bandura
D)B. F. Skinner







Intro to Criminal JusticeOnline Learning Center

Home > Chapter 3 > Self Quiz