Select the correct answer to the following multiple-choice questions by circling the appropriate letter.
Which of the following is best treated as a non-statement?
|A)||Philosophers have long gray beards and wear glasses.|
|B)||Philosophy is dangerous.|
|C)||Can't you understand that without justice there will be no peace?|
|D)||Please pass the salt.|
Which of the following is best treated as a statement?
|A)||Would you please stop making that noise?|
|C)||Get out of that burning house before the roof collapses.|
|D)||I hate the taste of pineapple.|
Which of the following is an example of a conditional statement?
|A)||If George maintains his present popularity, he will be a shoe-in for the Republican Nomination.|
|B)||George will choose either Dick or Jeb as his running mate.|
|C)||The President should not pander to public opinion.|
|D)||No President has ever been re-elected during a recession.|
According to the Principle of Charity, one should
|A)||always attribute to an arguer a stronger argument when they have failed to provide sufficient reasons in support of their conclusion.|
|B)||never attribute to an arguer a weaker argument when the evidence reasonably permits us to attribute to him or her a stronger one.|
|C)||attempt to fix the errors we find in the arguments of others in order to make them stronger.|
|D)||accept the arguments of others unless we have absolute proof that their conclusions are false.|
Identify the main conclusion in the following argument: Every year, innocent people are released from prison when new evidence arises proving they are not guilty of the crimes they were convicted of. This alone is good reason to reject the death penalty. But that's not the only reason. The death penalty is also ineffective as a deterrent. Besides, the number of appeals and other safeguards required in death penalty cases are an astronomical cost to the system.
|A)||Innocent people are often convicted of crimes they did not commit.|
|B)||The death penalty is ineffective as a deterrent.|
|C)||The death penalty is too expensive.|
|D)||The death penalty should be rejected.|
Identify the sub-conclusion in the following complex argument: Many non-human animals are capable of feeling pain. We know this because they exhibit the same behavioral signs that people do when they are in pain. Further, many animals have remarkably similar nervous systems to people. We can conclude from this that harming animals is wrong for the same reason that it is wrong to harm people.
|A)||Many non-human animals are capable of feeling pain.|
|B)||Animals exhibit the same behavioral signs that people do when they are in pain.|
|C)||Animals have similar nervous systems to people.|
|D)||Harming animals is wrong for the same reason that it is wrong to harm people.|
Identify the main conclusion in the following complex argument: Capital punishment must be abandoned until it is possible to guarantee that innocent persons are never executed. In the past year alone, DNA evidence has exonerated at least 13 individuals convicted of capital crimes in the state of Illinois. History has also shown that the public desire for a swift resolution of social ills has often led to the scapegoating and execution of people who were not guilty. This shows that there are serious problems with the justice system as it is presently structured in cases concerning the death penalty.
|A)||There are serious problems with the justice system as it is presently structured in death penalty cases.|
|B)||Capital punishment must be abandoned until it is possible to guarantee that innocent persons are not ever executed.|
|C)||Many people who are innocent have been subjected to capital punishment.|
|D)||Capital punishment is inherently wrong.|
Consider the following passage: "There are many species in North America whose venom is poisonous to humans. These include the Black Widow spider, the Western Rattle Snake, and the Portuguese Man O'War." This passage is an example of a/an
The passage, "The weather is cold because there is low atmospheric pressure in the region," is an example of a/an
"Abortion is murder plain and simple, and anyone who doesn't believe it is just ignorant," is an example of a/an
|C)||unsupported statement of belief or opinion.|